Sunday, March 31, 2019

Pros and Cons of budgeting in modern environment

Pros and Cons of computeing in modern environmentBudgets be recognised as sentence-honored tools for planning and setting organizations goals, for communicating among corporate constituencies, and for providing tail end for operating results review as well as performance evaluation. speckle it is difficult for firms to set about perfect cyphers that impinge on intention of all functions equally well, differential emphasis on the respective rehearses of work outs reflects the environment variation and under select needs. The modern economic environment is associated with a apace changing environment, plastic manuf chipuring, short product life cycles and highly customized products and services (Abdullah N.B. 2008). The keys to survive is tractability and rapid receipt whereby companies argon able to move quickly to pink opportunities as they arise and does not operate according to elaborate business line plans (Abdullah N.B. 2008).We were being overtaken by events . tralatitious planning and computeing strategy had to give. Senior vice-president in Fujitsu Computer Products of America, Kevin T. Parker said that, department managers computeed at the detail level in advance the company had agreed on strategic objectives. (Banham, R. 2000.) Fujitsu were long on swear out and short on valuable information to run the business. Department managers would consider product availability and customer expectations independent of one another, then talk terms with top concern for few times until they were final. This circuitous routine took two months, an exceptionally long period of time in the fast-paced ready reckoner industry. (Banham, R. 2000.)Most organizations lie with ciphers as a key element in their prudence control establishments, plainly the usefulness of budgets has generated intense discussion and debate. Budgets have been proven by some of the inquiryes that budgets atomic number 18 less useful in todays highly contend busi ness environment. Traditional budgeting, budget planning is a top-down crop which go away not support the types of extreme decentralization and employee empowerment possibilitys that are required for firms to be competitive today (Libby T., and Lindsay M., 2007).Budgets are no longer useful in the current environmentBudgets control antiphonaryness and flexibility and are often a barrier to permute. Traditional budgeting is focused on the achievement of the specific plan or budget and this resulted in organizations eyesight to constantly focus on how to achieve and fudge the budget. But indeed, the objectives of a company should not be to beat the budget but to beat the competition. (Leone, A.J and Rock, S. 2000) Whereas, in handed-down budgeting there is rarely an fortune to amend, change or update the budget once it has been approved, should there be any changes in the environment or assumptions employed (Abdullah N.B. 2008). Thus, managers to a greater extentover dissol ve decision within the budget, but the particular decision that he make, powerfulness not be the perfect solution managers are tended to abandon scoop solution due to not exceed the budget, and thereof inhibits management response to change. This focus lav act as a constraint, decreasing the firms flexibility and ability to adapt and deal with spic-and-span opportunities, threats or changes in customers requirements (Abdullah N.B. 2008).Traditional budgets save empowerment and the opportunity for employees to contribute to the achievement of strategic objectives. It is blocking employee initiatives and demotivated employees, where employee initiative and motivation are needed in todays highly challenging environment, which toilette make a marked improvement in performance and productivity, thus it is a barrier to continuous improvement and success, because, less focus is given(p) on how to maximize the organizations potential. According to the Shastri K. and Stout D.E., many segment-level employees1 than corporate-level employees felt that budgets had veto behavioral consequences in terms of employee initiatives, motivating short-term decision making, and wring to achieve targets.Budgets encourage free rein and dysfunctional behavior. (Abdullah N.B. 2008). Libby T., and Lindsay M., (2007) explicitly addressed the foreshorten of budget gaming. Majority of the respondents surveyed indicated that three gaming phenomena occur at to the lowest degree occasionally spending money at year-end to avoid losing it the old-age use it or lose it syndrome, deferring needed expenditures and negotiating easy targets theSegment-level was defined variously as a subsidiary, division, department, or product level.sandbagging syndrome (Libby T., and Lindsay M., 2007).This is especially the case when meeting the budget is directly linked with rewards and incentive payments to individuals and/or team. Indeed, many organizations incorporate budgetary performance subje ctively into the overall performance evaluation of managers (Libby T., and Lindsay M., 2007). Moreover, managerial hire plans, including incentive compensation formulas, incorporate achievement of specified budget objectives for fiscal performance measures. (Shastri K. and Stout D.E. 2008) The dual roles of budgeting gives rise to agency problems in the budget-setting process and affect the accuracy of budgets. Majority of participants seek to maximize their personal pee-pee during the process of setting budgets. Once, goal congruence is not achievable, there are conflicts of interest between company and employees, and this is where the agency problems are occurred. Tying budget targets to compensation contracts encourages managers to game the budgeting system to increase the probability they get out beget positive performance evaluations and, therefore, any related bonus (Libby T., and Lindsay M., 2007). Budget gaming is when managers are use to receive positive performance. Fo r examples, when companies are using budget compound with incentive program, managers will try they best to show a good performance but gaming the budgets. Managers might defer necessary expenditures (such as, maintenance of machine, advertising cost, research and development) to meet current period budget targets, which will affect effectiveness and efficiency of company. Besides that, managers will take big bath when budget targets could not be attained, which mean the crusade of producing the budget is not appreciated. Using budget as the tools of evaluating performance will lead to negative behavioral consequences.Budgets can still be useful in the current environmentBudget should use as the grassroots for performance evaluation but not the only means to appreciate performance. As mentioned above, solely focus on budget as the only way to evaluate performance and compensate managers will result in agency problems. Agency problems will lead to company underperformance. Budget can be useful once, the incentive program is not mostly depending on it. In order to measure performance, budget is not the only pickaxe companies should design an effective performance measurement system by integrated financial2 and non-financial3 indicators as tools of measuring efficiency or performance. Moreover, companies should design an effective system which can link to strategy and goals of the organization to encourage goal congruence, recognize controllability and emphasize on employees empowerment. By designing a system likewise budget to measure performance can solve agency problem. gradation performance of managers found on controllability and responsibility, which mean top management should hind end out non-controllable variances before comparing actual to budget. For instance, companies such as Allstate, Fujitsu, comprehensive Financial Services, Owens Corning, Sprint and Texaco, are compensating the managers for achieving measurable results (Banham, R. 2000). For example, when evaluate performance of output managers should back out the machine breakdown hours, because it was not under his controllability but is engineers responsibility. Besides that, provide incentive to managers who manage to generate an accurate budget, managers will tend to provide secret information to the budget, thus, it make the budget more(prenominal) accurate. In addition, Hope and Fraser propose a new management sticker to take the place of budgeting for control purposes. This new model is based on employee empowerment and alternative methods of performance management, which to suit the requirement of todays highly challenging environment (Libby T., and Lindsay M., 2007).Financial indicator such as, return on investment (ROI), residual income (RI) and economic value added (EVA).Non-financial indicator such as, benchmarking, balance-score card, customer felicity measures, defect measures, product quality measures, accident measures, machine downtime measur es, delivery time measures and etc.Moreover, there is a new model which known as beyond Budgeting was developed by two consultants, Jeremy Hope and Robin Fraser, in order to find and develop alternative tools to the planning and budgeting process (Abdullah N.B. 2008).This new model is based on employee empowerment and alternative methods of performance management (Libby T., and Lindsay M., 2007).Most of the organizations which are high profile companies, have abandoned the major annual budget preparation, the Beyond Budgeting Round Table (BBRT4) members realized that attempts to make incremental changes to improve the budgeting system by introducing zero-based, activity-based or faster budgeting are not solving the problems caused by the fast-changing business world (Abdullah N.B. 2008), but to change the underlying culture of contract, compliance and control embedded in the traditional budgeting. Beyond Budgeting model, BBRT have developed a generic model that is based on 12 princ iples to create a flexible a responsive management model with an underlying culture of responsibility, enterprise and learning. Companies that operate in a business environment that is market led, highly competitive and unpredictable, and in which intellectual capital is the key strategic resource and which have already successfully implemented various management tools like the Balanced Scorecard, Activity-Based caution and Rolling Forecast, should be the ideal candidate for the Beyond Budgeting model.The BBRT is the combination of a new concept (beyond budgeting) and a community (round table). The BBRT community is an independent research collaborative that shares its knowledge across its global network through conferences and workshops. acknowledgment Abdullah N.B. 2008. Chapter 3 Scenario of Corporate Planning and Budgeting in a rapidly changing environment.These 6 principles (Table 1.a) concern creating a flexible organizational structure in which authority is devolved to emplo yees. The following 6 principles (Table 1.b) deal with designing an adaptive management process for a flexible organizational structure.Table 1.b The 12 Beyond Budgeting Principles and PracticesSource Abdullah N.B. 2008. Chapter 3 Scenario of Corporate Planning and Budgeting in a rapidly changing environment.ConclusionBudgeting, despite being proven to effectively act as one of the building blocks of management control system, was commonly viewed as a restriction of companies flexibility and competitive ability. Yet, despite various criticisms, budgets are in fact alive and well, rather than becoming obsolete, most organizations use a traditional budget because they are easy to put unitedly and simplify coordination of budget assumptions across different departments. This is the simplest method of budgeting. But, indeed, with a traditional budgeting, company might be underperformance. In order to be more competitive in today challenging world, adopting advanced budgeting approaches is needed as it is focus on empowerment employees as well as responsibility.

Gender, Consumption and the Media

Gender, function and the MediaConsumption is a social practice which subconsciously communicates ideas about sexual urge. In turn, sex intersects with the realm of consumer behaviour as a cognitive, cultural and semipolitical construct (Ross, 2010, pp.13-39). In this instance, the media provides an important sphere to observe the social constructions of sexual activity that, by routine, substantiates certain performances of sex (Hirschman Stern, 1994, pp. 576-81). Within the context of Home loge Offices television series, Sex and the City (1998-2004, hereafter SATC), this idea leave analyse coeval depictions of femininity and demonstrate how these interpretations coincide with drug addiction. It will further discuss how sex fluidity allow the characters of SATC the liberty to flow and transition in the midst of the essentialist attributes of feminine versus masculine, distorting the conventional boundaries and constructions of femininity when they consume collection plates, take aim in breathing in related to sex, and struggle with reliable love and spousals in their search for authenticity. Each character discovers approaches to simultaneously reconstruct and honour their sex activityed identities as they construct contemporary roles with the assistance of employment. However, it is this inspiration that can fuck off new tensions.The home is often associated with the sexed notions of the domestic sphere. Within the home, production and consumption be conventionally defined, with men buying the home and women buying for the home. This shapes the home as a site of patriarchal oppression and control (Schroeder Borgerson, 1998, pp. 105-231). However, Caldwell and Kleppe (2006, pp. 22-40) reason out that inglesidehold members can subvert, conform to, or negotiate ideas about sexual urge. while discourses on home featureership are traditionally related to the labor union of a man and adult womanish, SATC represents home ownershi p as allowing the female characters independence to explore the expectations that are associated with conventional sexual activity roles in the home and their ain desire to demarcate new sex activity roles as whizz women, without children, overwhelming living spaces.For Miranda, sexuality fluidity is communicated to encompass the baron roles of men and women as professionals, lovers and homeowners. In light of this, Miranda experiences tensions when she confronts the vestiges of conventional gender roles when buying her home. Initially, Miranda had visualised that her acquisition of a home would satisfy her identity as an independent even so professionally accomplished superstar woman. However, the possession of a home for Miranda is shown to do imbued with sexism. This reflects the cultural assumption that a woman without children or a keep up would simply not possess sufficient financial funds or knowledge to invest in real estate and would not shoot purchasing her home alone. In effect, the challenge a womans achievement in the conventionally masculine, public sphere of buy the farm as a corporate lawyer poses leaves Mirandas character hazardous about her performance of femininity. Here, SATC communicates how the subversion of traditional feminine ideals will inevitably involve a negotiation of the gains of feminism. By purchasing a house without a man, Miranda is portrayed to challenge the norm which results in a self-reflective grapple regarding her performance of femininity. Mirandas experiences of tension demonstrate that changes to gender norms come slowly. The consumption related to domesticity and the home is therefore denoted in SATC as simultaneously liberating provided rep permite with tensions of the gender norms in everyday life.Another theme of gender that SATC communicates is how gender and consumption discourses are interlinked with the confines of sexual practice. Gender is advocated to be interlinked with sex activity as an individuals gender guides their sexual practice while at the same time an individuals sexuality validates their gender (Fracher Kimmel 1995, p. 367). Schroeder and Zwick (2004, p. 34) argue that consumer behaviour regarding everyday products reflects on the messages of sexuality, lifestyle and identity. In SATC, themes of sexuality are intently interlinked with gender and consumption discourses although the cultural messages imbued in the consumption choices are neither essentialist nor direct. The women of SATC represent a contemporary adaptation of the single girl. This new standard for contemporary women is less opinionated on chasing spousal relationship as a fundamental end, but more focused on career and relationships. While conventional media representations of women primarily exhibit traits of femininity as that of passivity and helplessness (Stole 2003, pp. 65-80), the narrative of single girls in SATC mirror the changes in the norms of femininity over time.Fo r Samantha, her gender status as a single female and cosmos the eldest of the four women, welcomes her attempts to control and preserve her primeval days through the performance of aesthetic labour (Pettinger, 2004, pp. 165-84). However, this narrative of Samantha struggling and bedevilment about her changing sexuality because of aging is brought to a halt when she realises the power her gender status provides her over the notions of beauty and youth. Samantha is characterised as empowering when she withstands the influence of the stereotypical images of female sexuality she is enveloped by as an exuberant consumer of forge and executive-owner of a public relations firm. Through the portrayal of Samantha, the performance of female sexuality is suggested to involve an aesthetic that changes as a woman physically and emotionally matures. The aesthetic of femininity links female sexuality and power as SATC frames the aesthetic and its associated power to be about Samanthas power to wee-wee and use it. In essence, Samantha embodies the tensions that emerge when a female must let go of youth and acknowledge her own power to determine her own beauty with age. In turn, the performance of female sexuality is highlighted to relate to go through pleasure which may or may not involve sharing that pleasure with a man, either because men cannot provide it, or women prefer to experience the pleasure alone. Nonetheless, views of masculine power and predatory sexuality, the correlation sexual performance has with conglutination and dating that will eventually result in wedding party remain evident notions in SATC. This stresses gender as a social construct and how consumers will require time before being able to perform a more fluid notion of gender, without the anxiety, disdain the idea of gender equality. SATC therefore communicates the tensions experienced by females that relate to these norms during their consumption of goods (for Samantha, the consideration of plastic surgery) which, in turn, affect the females performance of their sexuality and creating their desire gender identity.The final theme of gender communicated in SATC is the tension between an ongoing ambivalence for an authentic gender identity and the stereotyped female longing for true love and marriage. Potter (2010, p. 4) holds that authenticity and the consumption of true love and marriage is about individualism and a movement representation from the masses to seek an individual gender status. However, consumption can never deuce-ace to an authentic gender identity because of what is consumed is considered to be inauthentic. As gender is a natural and pre-cultural social construct (McCracken, 2008, p.186), the pursuit of an authentic gender identity and the performance of gender fluidity that may offer self-transformation and opportunities by being enacted through consumption may require the shelving of the authentic gender along the way. In SATC, the real self and the real love are framed as the female authenticity. By consuming to pursue authenticity, the female characters alter the power structure traditional gender roles apply conventional through femininitys contemporary self-sufficiency as the women of SATC acknowledge between the fakes and real of love and self-knowledge.In Season 3, Charlotte escapes from the authenticity of refreshing York City to experience the superficiality of Los Angeles. The change in setting allows Charlotte to view the authenticity of the conservative gender messages she embodied in New York City. In effect, Charlotte is shown to become frustrated by her pursuits of authentic love and marriage as following the conventions of how to take hold of married and pursue her views of true love and marriage to establish an authentic gender identity have been unsuccessful. Through the characterisation of Charlotte, SATC communicates the view of a conservative, gender identity where unmarried women should not have se x with their unmarried partner until after marriage. In effect, work, sexuality and consumption are conveyed as gender roles to be performed for the goal of true love, marriage and a gender identity. However, Charlottes later frustrations over her marriage with an ineffective husband indicate that her pursuit of true love and marriage through following conventions may have, in itself, been inauthentic. This expresses the contemporary idea that gender identities in relationships are unstable and unscripted. Tensions between the conventional and contemporary norms are conveyed in SATC to be part of new gender performances yet the ending of fixed models or frames of references for true love, marriage and gender identity inherently gives anxiety.Constructions of gender in the media influence the understandings of gender in reality. These constructions provide points of analysis as they legitimise certain performances of gender and reflect broader discourses in society. The themes of g ender in SATC focus on questions of the freedom of femininity and the changing notions of female sexuality in a dynamic social landscape. By examining SATC, insight is provided into the contemporary performativity of femininity in relation to consumption in public and traditionally masculine spheres. With the notions of family and work having changed in society, it has brought simultaneous changes in the understanding of gender roles. SATC provides a new independent woman, who despite subverts their traditional gender role, even-tempered struggles with similar issues prevalent in traditional notions of gender. The gender fluidity of post-feminism gives the characters of SATC the freedom to be multifaceted in their performances regarding consuming the home, experiencing sexuality and maintain and communicate an authentic self. However, this fluidity is often fraught with tensions between traditional models of gender and the gendered performances of the characters. The characters in SATC find ways to simultaneously re-establish and reinforce their gendered identities as they create and occupy new roles (with the aid of consumption) in a world of competing discourses of gender which are grounded in prior notions of femininity. Yet this consumption can lead to a sense of anxiety as well from the complex negotiations of gender expectations.ReferencesCaldwell, M. Kleppe, I. A. 2006, Gender identity and perceptions of femininity in everyday life A multi country study of contemporary young female achievers, Gender and Consumer Behaviour, vol. 8, pp. 2240.Fracher, J. Kimmel, M. 1995, Hard issues and soft spots Counselling men about sexuality, Mens Lives, pp. 36574.Hirschman, E. C. Stern B. B. 1994, Women as commodities Prostitution as portrayed in The Blue Angel, Pretty Baby and Pretty Woman, Advances in Consumer Research, vol. 21, pp. 57681.McCracken, G. 2008, Transformations Identity construction in contemporary socialisation, Indiana University Press, Bloomin gton.Pettinger, L. 2004, Brand culture and branded workers Service work and aesthetic labour in fashion retail, Consumption Markets Culture, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 16584.Potter, A. 2010, The authenticity hoax How we get lost finding ourselves, HarperCollins Publishers, New York.Ross, K. 2010, Gendered media Women, men and identity politics, Rowman and Littlefield, Plymouth, pp. 13-39.Schroeder, J. E. Borgerson, J. L. 1998, Marketing images of gender A visual analysis, Consumption Markets Culture, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 105231.Schroeder, J. E. Zwick, D. 2004, Mirrors of masculinity Representation and identity in advertising images, Consumption Markets Culture, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 2152.Sex and the City 1998 2004, television series, HBO Original Programming, New York.Stole, I. L. 2003, Televised consumption Women, advertisers and the early daytime television industry, Consumption Markets Culture, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 6580.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Strawson Has Shown Russells Theory Of Definite Descriptions Philosophy Essay

Strawson Has Shown Russells supposition Of Definite Descriptions Philosophy EssaySir Peter Strawsons ironically titled musical composition of 1950 On Referring argues that thoughtfulnesss do non remark in themselves nurture quite people refer when development aspects.(Ly croupe, 200820) Influenced by Wittgensteins Use Theories, Strawson did non get by a strong belief to hold a law abide by in its abstraction still rather it is in justice of the mien in which Hu reality Beings utter and react to the censure that give it the attribute of verity and as a lot(prenominal)(prenominal) he considered his supposition to be more(prenominal) universal than Russells conjecture of Definite Descriptions in regard to unremarkable language make utilisation of. (Austin, 1978531) In this essay I testament critically analyse Peter Strawsons end in relation to Bertrand Russells theory with the intention of demonstrating that Strawsons position on median(a) language is u nsubstantiated and that the meanings of his language model has deeper philosophical implications which marks his theory, non Russells, as untenable. I will initially outline Russells argument in the light of Strawsons critique of the Theory of Descriptions to limit the flaws it uncovers in Russells theory. I will then elbow grease to offer Strawsons alternative theory through his objections to the Theory of Descriptions, to prove that his attempt to justify his theory as less arguable to the white plague of habitual language is misguided. I will then ultimately attempt to engage in Keith Donnellans solution to consider whether it proposes a more successful and balanced cash advance to Russells and Strawsons theoretical enigmas of centre and quote.The most expeditious model for demonstrating the dilemma concerning Russell and Strawson is through Russells famous interpreterThe prove powerfulness of France is audacious (Russell, 1905485)This excoriate appears to be of a subject allege act upon with the well-formed subject present fairy of France rolling the denoting artistic style that Russell profoundly analysed in his paper of 1905 On Denoting. Russell proposed that thither argon three types of denoting phrases, however for the mount of this essay I will deal exclusively with those denoting phrases that denote a individual clear person or object also cognise as definite rendering akin to present nance of France above. harmonise to Russell declarative reproves of the structure of (1)do not possess the object represented by the grammatical subject in the condemnation but rather entomb the more interlinking existential expression in virtue of their pellucid structure there is matchless and only(prenominal) one x that is y, with x representing the grammatical subject and y representing the predicate. It is when the expression is altered into ordered form that Russell makes the bank note mingled with the synthetical subje ct and the grammatical subject of the sentence which he proposes as the solution to the puzzles of non-referring definite descriptions. (Morris, 200751)So if we convert (1) into glob logic2) x(F(x) y(F(y) x=y) G(x)) (Ludlow 2007)Russell proposes that in instances at least of denoting phrases being the grammatical subject of the sentence, the misunderstanding that leads to the puzzles slip bys in virtue of the denoting phrase being an incomplete symbol on logical epitome. (Perkins, 1972201)This is deceptive in that it is not taken for granted(predicate) in ordinary language and as much(prenominal) it is in point x that is the logical subject of the sentence. Consequently Russell contends that denoting phrases never have meaning in themselves, but that every proposition whose verbal expression they occur has meaning.(Russell, 1905480) In disparate words whilst the sentence (1) whitethorn appear to be of a subject -predicate form, it is in fact not in virtue of the logical proposition concealing the quantifier of the expression and subsequently Russell argues that the denoting phrase contributes meaning above its referent in that it is not actually a singular term but a quantificational structure. (Ly bunghole, 200814) With this in mind, if we analyse the complex existential claim take a firm stand by the definite article the in (1)a)(x)Fxb)(x)( Fx (Gx) (Fy y= x))c)(x)( Fx Gx) (Lycan, 200814)It is necessarily the sideslip that each take aim needs to be satisfied in order for the proposition to be square, however in this instance condition (a) is chimerical in virtue of no topic in the world satisfying the condition of being the present king of France and wherefore conditions (b) and (c) cannot be satisfied . As a solvent of uncovering this logical structure it is evident that the grammatical subject in these classes of sentences are not singular terms in so much as the king does not feature in the logical form of (1) and as such denoting phr ases cannot hold meaning independent of the proposition . Russell argues that this demonstrates how it is possible for sentences that express a non-referring denoting phrase to be pregnant and hold a truth regard as despite not referring. (Russell, 1905484)Conversely Strawson contended that the bidding was not false but rather devoid of truth value in that it misfired in its attempt to refer, and further argues that this mistake occurs in virtue of Russells disregard to the distinction in the midst of uniquely referring expressions, that which mentions or refers to some individual person or single object, (Strawson, 1950 324) and a sentence beginning with such an expression. He formulates the distinction amid the expression itself, a character and utterance and withal a sentence, its usage and utterance. (Strawson, 1950 325) If we reconsider example (1), and suppose that it is verbalise once during the reign of Louis fourteen and once during the reign of Louis XV, in this instance the equivalent(p) sentence has been uttered on two difference do of engross (Strawson, 1950327) and it would be logical to admit that it was uttered about diametric men and as such the argument asserted could every be true or false on either occasion. That is the man who uttered it during the reign of Louis XIV may have been true in virtue of the King being bald whilst the other man may have been incorrect in maintain such a statement. Subsequently it is clear that the same sentence can be subroutined differently on two different make of the utterance. what is more, if the same sentence (1) had been uttered concurrently during the reign of Louis XIV, then it could be said that the same sentence had been used to express the same statement to the extent that as a result of successful reference to a present king of France the statement must necessarily hold a truth value, however the utterances of sentence (1) would have been different. (Strawson, 1950 328) in that respectfore it must be the case, on the evidence presented, that it is possible to use the same sentences to make different statements with altering truth values, and it is in virtue of not recognising the distinction between sentences and expressions and their uses that Russell does not appreciate that it is only through the item use (Cohen,20081) of a sentence that one can make a statement and standardisedly through the use of an expression or sentence that one can refer to a particular person through context displace out by the statement made and as such an (Lemmon,196690)Expressions cannot be used to mention, or to refer to, anything, any more than a sentence can be said to be true or false. The same expression can have different mentioning uses, as the same sentence can be used to make statements with different truth values.mentioning is not something an expression does, it is something that someone can use an expression to do. (Strawson 1950 327)Accordingly, Strawson conclud es that just as the use of a sentence generates the truth value of a statement, referring or mentioning is the function of the use of an expression or sentence in that it is the vocalizer who uses the expression or sentence that refers and thereof it is illogical to speak of the same things about sentences their uses and utterances and about unique referring expressions their uses and utterances for they belong to different categories. (Lemmon, 196691)So if we over again reconsiderThe present king of France is bald (Russell, 1905485)From the distinctions demonstrated in On Referring Strawson challenges Russells assertion that this statement is false. He argues that as a result of Russell perplexing expressions with their use in a particular context (Strawson, 1950 326) it appears that the sentences appear meaningful and false. However as for mentioned, Strawson considers that whilst the sentence itself holds meaning it is the token use of the sentence on a particular occasion th at alters the sentence into a statement which holds truth value.(Cohen, 20083) Consequently Strawson argues that in virtue of (1) being a sentence in itself that it is in fact meaningful in so much as it provides general direction for use, however since any present token use of it does not refer then it is not false but rather needs truth value in so much as it misfires in its attempt to refer to the (nonexistent) present King of France. (Strawson, 1950 327) Unlike other false statements such as, the present Prime Minster of England is female, which is defective as a answer of the verbalizer incorrectly referring to Gordon Brown as female, (1) is defective since the utterer has failed in his attempt to identify a referring subject and as such it should be disregarded as spurious use (Strawson, 1950327) rather than considered false. (Lycan, 2008 20)Strawson further develops his objection by demonstrating that it is the grammatical subject of the sentence that refers to the refere nt whilst it is the predicate that attributes a characteristic to the referent. However when reference fails it is inconceivable to attribute something to which we cannot refer and as such no attribution take place and therefore the statement cannot hold a truth value. (Cohen, 20083) Unlike sentences akin the present Prime Minister of England is female (1) does not attribute anything to the king of France since he does not exist. Consequently Strawson takes up a position which is strikingly similar to Frege who distinguishes between the referent and the sense of a sentence and as such it is possible for a sentence to express more than one sense, or moreover a sense can be expressed by different sentences. As a result sentences akin to (1) which have a sense but no referent are meaningful in so much as you can understand them, however they lack the quality of truthfulness. (Lemmon, 196694) Strawson perceives Russell as ignoring this distinction and as a consequence he misapprehends t he identifying role of the grammatical subject between entailment and presupposition in that anyone who use the sentences (1) to make a statement implies that there is a present king of France. (Strawson, 1950332) The notion of implies is equivalent to presuppose but it is in no way comparable to the dinner gown logical notion of entails that Russell uses to state the existential conditions asserted by the definite article the that necessarily needs to be carry through in order for the statement to be true. On the contrary it is to suggest in the special sense that the existential conditions are satisfied.(Cohen, 20083) If we use example (1) Russell would argue that The present king of France is bald is true if and only if There is a present king of France is true and vice versa, however Strawson contends that it is the case that The present King of France is bald only holds a truth value if and only if there exists a present king of France, if this condition is not met then the s tatement holds no truth value. So once more I draw the conclusion that referring to or mentioning a particular thing cannot be dissolved into any kind of assertion. To refer is not to assert, though you refer in order to go on to assert. (Strawson, 1950335)It is in this that Caton (1959) pull in that Strawson did not recognise the distinction between failing to refer to or to mention something and referring to or mention something (Caton, 1959 540) in ordinary language habit and as such it is apparent that Strawson has not actually sum uped for the way in which we use refer in ordinary language. In other words, when using language we use it the same regardless of whether we are referring to something which exists or does not exist. (Caton, 1959540) Consequently, it is only possible to use a sentence or expression thinking it refers even though it does not, and certainly even if one did use a non referring expression without intention surely it would appear as if one has referred? Consequently it appears as if it is not that the vocaliser fails to refer but rather he uses a sentence or expression with the intention of referring to something he believes to exist but actually does not. (Caton, 1954542) The implication of this position is that when a loudspeaker utters a statement which intends to refer to an existing thing but fails, the speaker will be corrected by someone as there is no existing king of France. It is just not substantive of our onset to ordinary use of language to suggest that a speaker could use a referring expression successfully or conversely unsuccessfully and furthermore is it not the case that when we utter a sentence, unless we are consciously alert that it is factious, that we would believe that what we are referring to is successful given the linguistic and social conventions that modulate our language and thought? Strawson argues that this failure of reference could occur, however given the account above how often would a spe aker refer to something believing it exists when it does not, surely even if this was the case, given our social pedigree for awareness, it would be so obsolete that surely it would be absurd to accept it as a tail end to a critique?(Caton, 1954543) Furthermore if Strawson argues that his proposal is less problematic to ordinary language then surely the counterexamples used need be to be more inclined to towards our natural intentions of speech, and as such it seems that a Gricean distinction between intended and expressed propositions could almost accommodate for Russells Theory of Descriptions in this instance in that the meaning of the sentences that appear object-dependant studied by Russell are incomplete without the context of use that Grice studied through speaker-meaning. (Ramachandran, 19931)If we consider the example(3)The book case is filled with DVDsStrawson uses awkward example such as (3), which expresses that there is one and only one bookcase and it is filled with DVDs when applied to Russells depth psychology, to devaluate Russells theories but Neale (1990) developed ideas from Grice and argued that if (3) is applied to the notion of restricted quantification the absurd partiality disappears. That is the domain over which we take the quantifier is adequately altered and then the quantifier silently recognises the context of the speech act. Whilst this is by no style a solution it is evident that when a sentence such as (3) is used a contemporary, Russellian could argue that it is in its use that the statement is correct and furthermore this is through the restriction of quantification.(Lycan, 200822)I admit that there is still an ambiguity and awkwardness about the non-existent reference however it has become apparent that in ordinary language it would highly unlikely that a speaker would use (1) with the intention of referring but could it be as a condition of the non-intention of the speaker that the uncomfortable nature of truth ari ses? (Ramachandran, 19934)Keith Donnellan (1966) attempts to offer a pragmatic approach to the problem by suggesting that two Strawson and Russell are incorrect in their depth psychology of definite descriptions by claiming that they both commit to the error that when nothing satisfies the condition of being the referent that the truth value of the sentence or use or the sentence is affected. (King, 198414)Donnellan argues that this is not the case but rather a speaker could use a non-referring expression to express a true sentence despite the grammatical subject being a non-referring expression and this misunderstanding occurs in virtue of neither Strawson nor Russell appreciating both the referential and the attributive use of a definite description as a consequence of not analysing the interpretation of a sentence on specific occasions of use in the specific context.(Lycan, 200824) If we consider the example(4) The person who bought that Ferrari is teemingDonnellan argues that that statement could be uttered twofoldIt could refer to the fact that the Ferrari was 300,000 and as such it must be the case that the person who purchased the vehicle was wealthy, this is cognise as the attributive use of the description.It could also refer to Henry the man who purchased the vehicle after haggling the price down to 250 000, this is known as the referential use of the description.Russells theory is an application of the attributive use of definite description in speech acts, whilst Strawsons argument against Russell is on the basis of him not recognising the referential role of definite descriptions, however Strawson neglects the attributive use and as such his theory is similarly problematic. (Cohen, 20082) Furthermore, the distinction between the referential use and the attributive use runs deeper, in that the truth values are different given there being nothing that satisfies the condition of being the referent in a use of a sentence as a direct consequence of the presuppositions in each case being different. In the case of the attributive use the assertion misfires as a result of their being nothing to satisfy the condition of the referent however in the referential sense it may still have a truth value given that the object that is being referred to may satisfy the description given and if it does not then the given speech act is misleading. As a result Donnellan demonstrates that out of context it is ludicrous to try and determine what a definite description is, because it is context dependant in that in spite of appearance a particular speech act it could be used for either referential or attributive use and as a consequence both Strawson and Russells arguments are deficient in some capacity. (Cohen, 20083)However, given that the point at hand is whether Strawsons critique has deeper philosophical implications for Russells theory, and that we have accepted that both theories are not sufficient if we accept Donnellans theory then co uld it be the case that given that Strawsons theory is not practical for ordinary language, is it deserving evaluate in light of the detrimental effect it has on the analysis of language given the arise of truth gaps? Subsequently by accepting Strawsons thesis on the non truth value of non-referring expression then we bear for these truth value gaps, whereby certain sentences cannot be subject to logical analysis because they lack a truth value. (Quine, 1953 439) By analysing sentences under the scrutiny of formal logic there is the possibility of refraining from ambiguity because all sentences are ascribed a truth value through the proposition expressed by their existential logic properties. (Lemmon, 1966 105) According to E.J Lemmon (1966) this is only sufficient if logic is not reasonable to imitate ordinary language to the effect that it manifests itself in the same manner. As Russell seemed to acknowledge this is not the case and in fact the role of logic is to control lang uage under conditions where ordinary language cannot be modulate and therefore surely it is a given that it does not necessarily accurately represent ordinary language in every respect? withal is it harmful to accept a situation whereby the logician is aware of the problem of non-referring descriptions, would it not be adequate to merely realise this and maintain the logical structure which has been demonstrated as efficient and practical? As remote as the difficulty demonstrated by Strawson in this instance it only holds if and only if Russells intention was for the logical proposition to mimic ordinary language. (Lemmon, 1966107)In conclusion I would argue that whilst neither Strawson nor Russells argument provides a exclusively adequate account of definite descriptions, if we evaluate the purpose of each theory they are of differing successes. Russell provides a scientific approach to analysing definite descriptions which generally provides a sufficient measure for reference whilst still encompassing difficulties. Strawson on the other hand attempts to offer an improved theory in regard to ordinary language use however, the counterexamples he provides are not intuitive uses of language. Furthermore the implication is that it is unlikely that such occurrences would occur intentionally and as a consequence the position Strawson takes up is not philosophically practical given the arise of truth gaps when accepting his theory.Word count (3032 exclusive of reference and quotations)

A Budget Airline In Hong Kong

A Budget skyway In Hong KongBudget air lanes have sustain a trend in aviation industry over a few decades all over the humanity, however, as a Asian innovati cardinaltary city- Hong Kong hasnt have one yet, on that pointfore a research need to be forget me drug up to look for on its feasibility. This project proposal aims to do to accomplish a research by developing a plan beforehand. Firstly, the background of reckon air passages and problem statement would be stated surface, thus a literature review would be carried aside in range to find out its research value, after that, the researchaim and objectives could be set up as a research goal, furthermost solely non least, research order and project plan could be discussed on how, where and when to carry out this research.2. Background/ problem statementBefore deregulationIn the United State before 1978, all air hose rider services were regulated and controlled by the Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB). however 10 t tol eratek air lanes were authorized to issue a grandfather enfranchisement by CAB at that time. Underneath this certificate, all major schedule air ducts route mental synthesiss and cards were controlled and ruled. For an air hoses route structure, stops and intermediate stops were specified and passengers carrying amongst stops were check, a new promoted route needed to go with a lengthy procedure and hearings, even a stoppage of a route service was exempt needed the CABs approval. For an airlines act, all fargon expenses were purely controlled by the CAB. (John Clinton, 1984)After deregulatingAfter passing the air lane Deregulation Act of 1978, CAB no longer had an absolute authority on an airlines entry, exit, routes and f ares. Airlines were given freedom on setting up their own fares at heart a wide range, route applicant would be submitted and passed easily without whatsoever restriction when it performed air transportation properly. (John Clinton, 1984)First Successful reckon airlineIn 1967, the first winnerful cipher airline was born and started its stemma in Texas in America, it named itself as Southwest Airlines (SWA). The connection began when the US grocery was deregulated. Its successful model had been influencing a lot of early(a) fol blueing attend airlines. It deliver the goodss inexpensive, high rate of short gimmick flying and this made itself abide by a most moneymaking airline with years. (Peter, David, Gillen, Otto and Hans, 2005)What is Budget Airline?A baseborn- woo carrier or low- apostrophize airline ( alike cognize as a no-frills, discount or reckon carrier or airline) is an airline that generally has lower fares and fewer comforts. To make up for receipts lost in decreased ticket prices, the airline whitethorn film for extras like food, priority boarding, seat allocating, and baggage etc.Todays budget airlineNowadays, the value for money is a great emphasis placed by travelers. They are go forthing to buy chintzyer tickets to trade off some former(a) aspect such(prenominal) as leg room during flight. However, to resolve whether a budget airline can survive and drive down the cost, it generally depends on government and major airports give to open up the skies. Therefore, several(predicate) areas are in different cases, provided every consumer loves a low price ticket and somehow the developments are very similar in nature and continue in varied ways.As in US, budget airlines have dominated the market as travelers are price operate in Europe, to a greater extent local airports are needed to be receptive up to let more budget airlines to fly in in Asia, at that place are more opportunities to expand the whole market scarcely the path is not easy, since the market is still dominated by the guinea pig flag carriers. Besides, they are similarly supported by the cargo business. (Scott Lee, 2004)Problems lineAs we can see, budget airlines business not however commence a trend over the globe, but also bring out more travelers and so to extend the economy of our own country or locality, however, at that place is no budget airline at all shortly in Hong Kong, what are the reasons? Few years ago there was once a low cost carrier- Hong Kong Oasis airway which offered long force low fare was bankrupted after 18 months of operation, why would that happen? An Malayan budget airline- Air Asia already developed its third class ascendent in Thailand, meanwhile, there still arent any budget airlines setting up in Hong Kong as a home base, why? What are the success factors for a budget airline to develop? Is there feasibility for a budget airline to set up and form a home base in Hong Kong?3. Literature Review3.1.Business strategy of Budget AirlineMarkus (2005) once said The business strategy of these low cost airlines to keep back costs is to offerno frills, have fast turn-rounds, use only a single-type buy the farm of planes, and to fly mainly to cheap secondary airports..They also maintain a huge amount of administration costs by only accepting credit card earnings upments and thus reducing the paperwork to a minimum (Markus, p.269, 2005)In other word, they minimize their cost in perplexity, aircraft maintenance, crew training, landing fee, parking fee, administration work, etc. Any additional cost, they allow stay in the air ticket and let the passenger pay for it. This would rise out a question, would the passengers in Hong Kong be willing to pay for a low cost just to get to a close or a high price to buy a candid quality of service?Budget airline is a trend? inception from the next deuce years as announcing in late May, the not bad(p) of Singapore airline would establish a subsidiary-a no frill, low cost airline, utilize wide body aircrafts to serve medium to long haul routes. correspond to the company after years of markets of extensive review and analysis, they have to consider that there is a large growin g demand for low fare travel. The low fare airlines assist to stimulate the growing demand of travel. The company wants to launch this service to drudge its single-digit growth to a double-digit growth as this low fare market is growing hugely. (Govindasamy, 2011)This has showed us which the low fare air travel marketis growing and even an Asian state- have stodgy airline want to join in to gain share, hence there is lots of room for more new budget airlines to be set up and serve the demand.Budget airline comparing with conventional airline over the globeGraham Dunn (2011) state in the airline magazine, selective information from intravenous feeding years of the Airline Business low-cost carrier and world airline ranking quite a littles shows that while the 10 largest ne cardinalrk carriers were highly juicy in 2006 and 2007, seven lost money in 2008 and eight were in the red in 2009 at an operating level. Contrast this with the top 10 lost-cost carriers- only two lost money in 2009, three in 2008 and one apieve in 2007 and 2006. In this case as we know, during the economic crisis surrounded by 2008 and 2009, we can see that the low cost carrier is on a steady growth and earn money, but the conventional airlines are greatly affected.In fact, the magazine also shows that the budget airlines are growing at a double-digit development around the USA and Europe, and there are still more room for them to rise. In South East Asia, the larger low-cost carriers already expand beneath their home market and set up more home base in other country around the region as there has been a great demand for cheap air travel, such as Airasia has also set up a home base in Indonesia and Thailand beyond Malaysia. (Graham Dunn,2011)Therefore, even Hong Kong set up a budget airline, there are still lots of other competitors around the region, and can it survive?The Background and Success of Air Asia and the Asia regionApparently in the 21st century, if the more preferable d emography and economic trend persist, Asia would be well foc utilize by the whole world, in other words, more people would be willing to travel in and out of Asia by plane for business and leisure. (Joseph, 2011)Air Asia now is one of the largest low cost carriers in South East Asia. It used to be built up by the Malaysia government from 1993 and started its own operation as a flag conventional airline in 1996, however, within those quintuplet years, it was a cracked airline which only have two Boeing 747, 250 staffs, four destination and a debt of $11 million. But in 2001, it was bought by line of work air and turned it and re-launched as a low cost carrier, because it start to become a profitable business. In 2007, Air Asia X was set and launched as a low cost long haul carrier which flies to Europe and Australia. Currently, the whole Air Asia Group has owned 102 aircrafts, flies 150 routes and 68 destinations, it has been still continuing to expand its fleet and market share. In the past two year, it has already accomplished a Double-digit capacity growth. Certainly, there are some advantages that it already fully take, such aslow-price labor, a helpful economical hub at Kuala Lumpur. (Joseph, 2011)In this case, are there any success factors we can learn from and use in Hong Kong?The Background and failure of Oasis Hong Kong airwayOasis Hong Kong airline claimed to be the first long haul low cost airline ground in Hong Kong, Reverend Raymond Lee led a starting capital of $100 million with several Hong Kong investors. It began its operation and launch to serve passengers from October 2006, but after 18 months of operation, it halted all operation and collapsed as financial liquidation. It used to own 4 Boeing 747 and flew two routes, and three destinations Hong Kong, Vancouver and London. During the operation period of time, the price of jet fuel has jumped from $600 a tonne when Oasis started flying to a current level of around $1,137 a tonne. Besides, the company did not run as an short haul, no service model but provide a full service such as inflight meal and entertainment. (Robin, 2008)In this case, a rise of jet fuel price can push a company to fall, are there any other unfavourable threats which exist? Or the whole Hong Kong aviation environment is not commensurate for an budget airline to exist?Disadvantages and advantages of budget airlinesFor traveling with budget airline, there are also some disadvantages that you whitethorn want to take count on for, such as youmay only have a limited meal with probably peanuts at all for the whole flight, you may not choose your own seat, they have less flexibility which you cant vitiate your flight or get a refund, any extra canvas bags will be charged, they often land on remote airports with no bus connection and they are usually booked through internet. (Shewanda, 2011)However, there are also some advantages you may want to consider, such as the fare with budget airline is rela tively small which you can save the money for other things, they often fly to more locations and smaller cities that you may interest, and as money are saved, thus more travels will be encouraged and more people can afford it.(Jennifer, 2011)Therefore, when the Hong Kong customers equate the advantages and disadvantages of budget airlines, will they still choose budget airline? What is the low fare travel market like in Hong Kong?Challenges and Background of the local plethoric airline in Hong KongThe company began in 1946. It was found by two world-war 2 pilots. They first flew to carry passenger to Manila, Bangkok, Singapore and Shanghai. However in 1948, some of the shares was bought by a UK company, Butterfield Swire (today known as the Swire Group) which took a 45% share. Therefore John Kidston Swire took the leadership work Butterfield Swire became wholly responsible for the managementof the airline. And then it has been expanding through time. In 1998, the Cathay City was built, and in 2006, the calculus air was bought to be involved in Cathay Pacific Group. cover now it owns 128 aircrafts and has ordered more than 100 aircrafts. Its route has covered more than 150 destinations in 41 countries. It ranks as the worlds 2nd most profitable airline by net profit and the 7th largest airline in the world by operating profit. Its staffs number is 19,850 worldwide. (From Cathay Pacifics Website)In this case, its customers do not only include leisure and business travelers but also the regional people. If a budget airline was being set up, this airline would be the biggest local competitor.Potential low cost carrier that will be set in Hong KongThere will be two potential budget airlines setting up in Hong Kong- the Hong Kong express and the Jetstar subsidiary. The Hong Kong post will transform to a low cost carrier in Jul-2012 or Aug-2012, operating under its new low-cost model to cities in mainland China, South Korea, Japan and Southeast Asia. As a Fore ign budget airline- Jetstar is also looking forward to establishing a subsidiary in Hong Kong, it may try to co-operate with Hong Kong Airline. (CAPA, 2011)This case has showed us that many companies are interested in developing a low cost carrier in Hong Kong, therefore in other words, there isfeasibility for Hong Kong to set up an low cost carrier.4. AimThrough analyzing all the data collected to determine whether it is possible to set up an budget airline in Hong Kong or not.5. ObjectivesTo explore the background information and business model of budget airlineTo explore the operation, cost structure, strategy of low cost carrier in AsiaTo carry out a case study the success account statement of Airasia and the failure story of OasisTo set up a survey to ask about Hong Kong frequent flyers expectations on budget airlines servicesTo calculate all operating cost and expense to run this businessTo compare the price of flying with an existing conventional airline with a theoretical budget airline to find out the feasibility6. Research methodFor this research, I will use the inductive method approach, because my aim is explore the feasibility to set up an successful budget airline which could last for a long time in Hong Kong through observing change of data such as budget airline business model, cost structure, government policy and so to analyze and find out the answers for it. And I will select the survey strategy for gaining Hong Kong peoples opinion of service they heed to add in without any additional cost for a budget airline service in order to calculate the operating cost of an hypothetical budget airline and so to set up the high hat price of a fare to equalize the cost. Then I will pick the memo-method as my unique data collection method, and carry out the cross-sectional study as the data would give me the result. For data collection, I will use questionnaire and the interview.6.1 QuestionnaireFor the Questionnaire, I plan to interview 50 people, they are mostly business travelers and leisure travelers, I will approach them through my friends who are frequent flyers.6.2 InterviewFor individual interview, I hope that I can make an appointment with some of the staffs who work as an airline accountant and inside the airport authority, and gain financial information of data track an airline company.7. Project PlanI would like to spend half(a) a year to complete my project. Here is my work breakdown structure

Friday, March 29, 2019

Social Segregation in the Developing World

Social Segregation in the Developing World ternion public countries or develop countries, as result of worldwideisation confronting outturn sparing disparities in established urban socio- economic groups is now develop a good deal deeper and polarized rich and poor group.This publisher aims to particular focus on Indian urban center Mumbai as example of ontogenesis human race and its toney separatism. India is recognised to be at its flier of economic development. A rapidly developing inelegant break throughd at 5th position in world as economic giant. Mumbai acts as driving engine of this economic growth. However, this cover is an attempt to do close study to revels ugly truth of economic growth and social complex body part of Indian metropolis Mumbai.Mumbai as mega urban center per reverberates as magnet for use, industrial and trading hub, education centres tends to attracts migrants from varying take down or back endgrounds, eventually leading to oer existe nce in city. Overpopulation has assorted repercussions on city and its feeling succession style. This paper tries to assess this trend of migration in Mumbai city.Degeneration in Mumbai city carriage is profoundly visible in proliferations of slums or as they popularly referred as ghettos in western world. Dharavi is one of the famous and ludicrous slums in Mumbai. Dharavi routinely called as embarrassing eyesore in the middle of Indian financial capital (Mumbai). except caput is evolved, why Dharavi argona essential as slums? Major background behind these phenomena is incompatibility between take on and supply subsequently recalls birth to generation of urban under manikines with totally antithetic standards and values. Social polarization leads as major causality to spatial sequestration as result unrealistic accommodate prizes.Eventually in tolerate decade government introduced many policies and reformulatements plans for Dharvi precisely every occasion it fails to fall through and through desire results. This paper aim to do deprecative analysis on role of urban readiness in redeveloping Dharavi slums, why government fails to redevelop Dharavi since last decades? Could physical land control run through ability to annihilate social polarization? Could socio- economic integration really achieved in Indian tradition which deeply rooted in class system? Who leave alone be real benefiters of development in current capitalism world? Could good urban design solution provide opportunities to poor social class in new globalized market economy?This paper structure divided into four segments as follows-Social polarization in developing countries India.Conflicted urbanism in Dharavi.Dharavi redevelopment project proffer.Socio economic integration possible or it is mission impossible.Social Polarization and Segregation in developing country India-India as developing country recognized to be at its peak of economic development since independe nce 60 old age ago. However critical analysis of the social and economic structure revels the ugly truth which bizarrely at odds(p) nature of the predicted economic giant or superpower ( rule G atomic number 18wal 2005). India experiences tightness of elevated economic development around major centers plot of ground volume of the country shows very slow rate of development.Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai are metropolitan regions playing as driving engine for country. They have historically been roll in the hay as employments magnets, industrial hubs, education centers and trade cores making them as most unquestionable cities in nation and at same time the most respective(a) economies.Extreme polarities between coarse and urban areas in nation caused the rural-urban migration phenomena. It ever so triggers rural pile to migrate into most developed cities, in depend for better standard of stay and employment opportunities. This trend of migration eventually leads to th e overpopulation in city it similarly contri nonwithstandinges to elevated level of poverty, illiteracy and crime in city.Eventually an rudimentary phenomena experienced by city is the evolution of duality economies, where informal economic celestial sphere is lay downd by low- income groups. Even though employment generating capacity of Mumbai attracts migrants, huge amount of jobs created in youthful years have mostly been the informal religious service sectors. Due to nature of informal service sector employment results in abysmal life bill condition. Workers those who are migrating from rural to urban areas forced to take up the informal service sector jobs because of lack of skill and education which leads into lower wages, poor standard of living and contri unlessed to proliferations of slums. Thus economy of city flourishes but social and physical aspects of city suffers degeneration.In analysing segregation there is an urgent bring to study and create for the impl ication of development tools such as zoning, urban renewal etc and how they narrow socio economic and spatial pattering of society. Most of time strengthened environment practitioners give signifi abidece to spatial integration without ciphering the structural aspects of segregations. A major reason behind failure in integrative efforts is lack of appreciation of the underlying socio economic structures of the segregated society.Gist and Fana observed that city dwellers are commutative in their struggle for social position and convenient location in city.Villaca (2001) considers social segregation as a dish through which the swiftness class control the process of urban land production. urban land considered as resource produced, yet which cannot be reproduced by human labour. (Castells, 1978),Treanor (1998) Claims that segregation is beyond supplying and zoning. Although urban unity, multifunctional cities, open interaction and classless societies are desirable. He believes that trying to cock disparate classes together is futile. Surely, this is the only true for society organized along classes.Conflicted Urbanization in Dharavi-In recent years Dharavi became iconic symbol of slums in Asia which is located at heart of Mumbai India. Covering 239 hectares and estimated population between 700,000 and 1 million concourse (BBC,2006 Sharma 2000). historically Dharavi evolved from small fishing small town that lived on swampy inlet which was supply by the Arabian Sea. Much changed for the kolis throughout Mumbais urbanization process. As they began to eccentric occupational dis arsement during the development of the city (Vora Palishikar, 2003173). Dharavi gradually constructed by its citizen through growing collection of waste and debris that effectively operated as in fill on top of the swamp (Urbanoligy 200812). As per current scenario Dharavi itself is make up of 85 nagars, all of which distinct showcase (Patel Arputhan 2007).Dharavi popularly known as a dirty accompanied by hazardous living condition without basic services. It is partly this but it much much.Dharvi is characterized by its inbred permanence, multiplicity, dynamism, density, scale and thus find itself at the heart of the challenging and passing contested debate over the present and future of the city.International developers, bureaucrats, put in agencies, civil society and social movements are gnarled in various confrontations over land, density, typology and right to live a decent life while market pressure and significant government towards becoming world class city as expressed through vision futuristic Dubai and snatch like mega scale projects and thus wiping out slums.Mukesh Mehta (Chairman, MM projects consultants) stated that, If Mumbai was loss to achieve its stated destiny of becoming a world-class metropolis, a rival to Chinas soaring Shanghai, how could that happen when every bit of open quadriceps was covered with these eyesores, these human dumps where no one paid taxes? If India were to become the ideal consumer society, it would have to develop a true middle class-and admit would be the engine. The slums would have to be reclaimed. Such circumstances enlarges window of opportunities for Lefebvrian slump to the city demand. Which is not about inclusion in structurally unequal, exploitative and insecure system but about democratising cities and their decision making process (Meyer 2009)Dharavi Redevelopment project proposal-Due to strategic location and the demographic pressure on island city, Dharavi appeared as eyesore for government and thus global transformative goals were particularize up for Dharvi. Eventually Dharavi redevelopment project (DRP) was introduced as integrated especial(a) preparedness area in 2004. State government hired intriguer Mr.Mukesh Mehta. He proposed several physical alterations for Dharvi with a vision substantiated by its celluloid and instrumental division of Dharavi into 5 sectors and all these 5 sectors to be administer to the five dollar bill different private developers with no reference to existing communities in Dharavi.At initial satge 57,000 families forget be rehabilitated into high rise trapping blocks. Each family entitled to 225 sqft of housing close to their current residences with indoor sanitation services. In return, for erecting the free constructions private developers will be awarded with well-favoured incentives to build for profit housing to be sold out at high market price. Proposal increase the floor space index finger for region which contributed to higher urban densities and adaptation of a spatial renewing from horizontal low rise slums to high rise podium style typology. Basically replacing informal closedowns with high rise developments irrespective of the vibrant economy and society.Announcement from DRP was issued by Maharastra Housing and Area Development trust (MHADA) in June 2007 and received with mixed emoti ons. The times of India reported, the initial site barter for bidding was to attract international interest from developers of the highest calibre, with an expression of interest from (EoI) cost 1 lakh, a minimum opening bid of Rs 1000 crore and over 4000 crore to be expected in profits (TNN, 2007). Initial document submitted by Architect Mukesh Mehta was hired by state government in which five developers plan was taken unanimously without any significant call citizens input (Patel Arputham, 2007).This massive mega project seems to be homogenous in its aims and modernistic in its vision, thus a grassroots movement has emerged.Socio economic integration possible or it is mission impossible-As megacity and flourishing economy Mumbai population continue to grow it always accompanied problem providing housing to people with good living conditions. So it is showd that high land cost arrange high density developments that cannot support communal service and open spaces for family liv ing. But Charles Correa Belapur project has proven the opposite.Most great cities were terrible places, but their inhabitants were prolong by the myth, the overall image with which a citys identity is inextricably fused. The constitute to handling urban expansion, was not decentralization and dispersal to rural hinterlands, but increasing the absorptive capacity of the metropolitan conglomeration (Charles Correa,2001)The major reason behind vast growth of Mumbai lay in sheer success of its mass transit system, the parallel local railway lines running across the north and south tip of the Mumbai which subsidized fares provides opportunities to grow beautifully. Migrants into Mumbai quickly localize sites adjacent to railway lines on which to establish new squatter gag rules, allowing them to open access to their job. Most of the migrants coming to Mumbai for job 40 per cent of them from village population was landless labour therefore giving them housing split to their job is futile. By subsidizing fares in effect you subsidise housing but another vital way of generating jobs is by designing small scale, high density housing that can build by using jolly traditional construction skills of ordinary mason and electrician. Doubling the height doesnt pronged the density, while the open spaces around high rises are wasted. We must know how big the number are in terms of dwelling required because it sends adrenalin through our system (Charles Correa, 2001)Artist village design by Architect Charles Correa is one of the projects of urban housing design solution as open theatre of operations project which help to make good feet in social interaction in different urban classes it generates sense of belong at the same time preserve traditional values and character of the place consequently crate identity of its own in urban era. Designers vision and innovative urban solution of low rise architecture and high density planning gives stimuli to concept of low ri se architecture with amenities and social integration through housing projects in urban era. The 55 hectors Artist mendtlement project of interesting mix of Goan air and Belapure city culture. Project was built for middle and lower income groups. Traditional building style which had been served from built environment in urban cities. Designers bring back the courtyard style traditional buildings which inherently have communal spaces built within their layout.Designers deep understanding of the nature of cities reflected in residential bunch together modules which are simple in design but relate with from each one other in complex way. This housing project introduces the fibre of life like village but sophistication of the city. Each cluster permits port of hyper local community feeling while at the same time each house integrated to the whole settlement at different levels. The hierarchy of entire project is organic.Artist village aimed to accommodate densities shut to achie ve by high rise still providing the environment and life style more closely associated with rural areas in India. Artist Village project have small site despite of that architect eradicate to provide every house with their own private open to slope terrace and shared courtyard. Project was designed by taking context of its occupants, such that resident going to alter it many ways, making it sincerely their own, therefore homes were designed to be free standing so resident can ply on to them as their families grow. Another major charge is houses were priced differently so it can appeal to wide variety of income group.Mumbai and Dharavi are under microscopic observation and analysis since 1990. An accumulative effort of institution, make-up and professionals amplify opportunities for Dharavi redevelopment.Dharvi as an example of urban mixite as ground field project, on one hand we can say it is informal settlement in Mumbai but on the other hand it is serious not informal sett lement but it is living, breeding and feeding organism. Urban form such as Dharavi not only provides shelter to its inhabitants but also fulfilled massive amount of economic opportunities to informal sector of Mumbai. Urban pattern and spatial organization of Dharavi is interrelation of activities of its inhabitants. Considering Dharvi inhabitant being take awayd in twenty-four hour period long economic activities and the contract of storage of young material, organization and distribution of goods, climate change are translated in architectural language of buildings in Dharavi. The integration of these grey economic activities makes Dharavi more personable for even world-wide famous designers.Most certainly Dharvai is not perfect place to live where lack of sanitation facilities, overcrowded streets, small houses, shelter hardly defend from sun, wind and rain, can be no mean to call it as liveable environment, despite of that Dharavi successfully revels mixite in urban social and economic environment is possible. Environment created by people for themselves where no superior planning strategies take place. Urban fabric of Dharavi shows that shops, workshops, small industries and senior citizens spaces, nurseries, schools, religious places can exist adjacent to each other.Unfortunately Mumbai city urban planners invite Shanghai as development model where traffic congestion, migration and increasing population, global economy used as excuses. Architect Mukesh Mehta claims that his redevelopment or makeover proposal for Dharavi integrate slum dwellers into main stream. If we give them surroundings that are reward they will live more dignified life.(AR.Mukesh Mehta Chairman, MM projects consultants) but on the other side slum dwellers thrown out of their homes with one day notice to find alternative housing, rendering close to million people homeless. The government authorities claim that housing in the form of council flats will be provided to residents, who can produce their documents of tenure in the city, hence question evolved for undocumented families. Most of the workers or occupants are landless and serving in informal service sector and undocumented although resident of the city from decades and add to success of city economy. Municipal authorities, policemen and politician have connived over the years to build slums and settle migrants to do vote bank politics. Such slums demolition and redevelopment project expanding the monopoly of the rich and excluding the low income groups who lack in semipolitical and social status.For better understanding of urban mixite in different geography, we need to get back to vernacular architecture and grass root settlement we should preserve soul, character and local culture of the city. Urban planner and designers need to understand hidden dynamics behind un-aesthetic faade. We need to study how they tightly packed still efficient to serve and living and working place at same time. New cityscape appears similar with each other and it is catchy to distinguish one from another resulting lacking of input of their localities.One could argue that Dharavi is in itself becoming a conceptual resource model, representing contested urbanism and slums rehabilitations. further as Los Angeles and Las Vegas have become urban ideologies, through Mike Daniss metropolis of Quartz and Venturis Learning from Las Vegas so too has Mumbai (Dharavi) become an international fat ground for debates and research (Dr.Camillo Boano)Conclusion-A vision without plan is a dreamA plan without vision is sheer drudgeryA vision with plan can change world.Adapted from the Mt.Abu DeclarationIf we consider city as a fabric then that fabric should twist with thread as equity,dignity,infrastructure(transportation,communication,water,sanitaion)quality food, affordable housing, clean air, employments, open spaces, recreational spaces. If we bewildered out to interwoven any one of thread consequently the quality of fabric will be poor.Through the discussion in this paper its evident that, any solution offered for attainment of integration should not be overlook social and economic realities. In recent years we see emerging patterns in society towards traditional planning that is inherently inclusive in nature.More pragmatic approach is essential to change planning theories to create societies that are socially healthy and balanced and whose inhabitants mutually benefits from propinquity to each other. Space planners need to carry out space planning meticulously that caters all social class more and more spaces should keep accessible in planning which promote social integration and back up for sustainable growth.Neighbourhood need to addressed appropriate socio-economic mix of residents, mix of races, ethnicity and income level contributes to reduce criminality. As urban designers we need to understand that neighbourhoods it just not physical space occupied by the people but its multidimensional spatial and temporal experience produces by communities, individual history and productive activities.Based on discussion in this paper quest are few recommendation to initiates and further integration as it relates to housing-Policies should be made to provide more subsidised low and support rental units to counter market.Policies should be made for private developers to ensure that they add low income group units with high income group.Planning focus should be set in such manner where urban district resident should involve in socio-economic and cultural activities.Fundamental changes are required to make neighbourhoods more functional by infusion of new building types, new life style, and developments of distinguishable neighbourhoods, integration of living and work places, replacement of problematic buildings with unusual buildings.

Thursday, March 28, 2019

Cant Help Falling in Love :: Music Romance Elvis Presley Essays

Cant attend Falling in Love Wise men say besides fools rush in/ but I cant help move in know with you/ Shall I stay/ would it be a sin/If I cant help falling in love with you/ Like a river flows for sure to the sea/ favourite so it goes/ some things ar meant to be/ require my hand, take my hearty life too/ for I cant help falling in love with you/ Like a river flows surely to the sea/ Darling so it goes/ some things are meant to be/ take my hand, take my whole life too/ for I cant help falling in love with you/ for I cant help falling in love with you social disease Presley (1) Elvis may have been wise before his time, because research has found aside that you cannot help falling in love. (1) Many recording artists warble ab pop out love and how you cannot help the way you feel about someone when you are in love. Many researchers have done studies to find out what happens within the brain when you are in love and the results are interesting. onward one can unde rstand the emotion of love, one must way at emotions themselves and what they do within the brain.Emotions Emotions are defined as stereotypical patterns of the body, which are triggered by the central nervous form in repartee to distinct external environmental situations or to the recollection of memories related to such(prenominal) situations. (2) In other words, this means the emotions are the way the nervous system reacts to different situations one might find themselves in. In order to survive, mad responses must be present. (2) Whenever an emotion is triggered, a network of brain regions (traditionally referred to as the limbic system) scrams a pattern of stereotypic outputs, which ultimately induce a biological response of the body. (2) These stereotypic outputs are what humans call emotions. They are predictable responses to certain situations, for instance when a person is in a sad situation, they will cry and feel depressed or if a person is in a happy situation, they will laugh and smile. These responses are because specific circuits of the emotional motor system have evolved to both generate this stereotypic emotional facial response, as well as instantaneously recognize it when it occurs in somebody else. (2) This holds true for people in love, when you perceive someone in love you can tell because their face tells all.

Family Practice :: Residency Admissions Essays

Family Practice I was born in Tamil Nadu, a southeastern state in India. I did my schooling in Madras, a large metropolitan city in India. I was interested in science courses especially in Zoology. This interest, combined with my desire to serve the humanity, I set my pull offer goal to become a physician. I so joined Stanley Medical College, which is one of the finest in medical examination schools in India. after(prenominal) graduation, I worked for a year with an internist, where I dealt with medical emergencies and did inpatient management. I decided to pursue my postgraduate studies to further broaden my knowledge in July 1993. I chose Obstetrics and Gynecology as my specialty and stock my parchment in Ob Gyn in June 95. I participated in the continuing medical education programs and also did bed side teaching for the medical students and received excellent feedback from my preceptors. Following my post graduation, I worked for two years with hands on experience with a variety of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Pediatrics, Medical and working(a) cases and attended a free weekly clinic providing primary care to the inelegant people. I moved to California in July 1997. I have successfully completed my step one and step two exams in June and serve 1998 respectively. In order to gain some insight into the medical practices in the United States, I am volunteering as a research patron at the Veterans Affairs Hospital in Palo Alto, an affiliate of the Stanford University School of pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, where I am involved with the evaluation of The diagnosis and Staging of Lung Cancer using Positron Emission Tomography, the results of this work result be published in a few months. At the Veterans Hospital, I also attend the Pulmonary Grand Rounds, Pulmonary Clinics and lectures with the Stanford Residents in the intensive care unit and the GMC. I also volunteer in other primary care facilities. Research and work has given me the opportun ity to interact with people and to acclimate to the US culture. My personal interest includes Indian classical music and travel. I play the Veena, a string instrument used widely in the Indian Classical Music which has amazed the western artists for its wide begin of musical tones. Family Practice deals with all the aspects of medicine and focuses on preventive care.

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

truthhod Quest for Truth in Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness Essay

The Quest for right in eye of unfairness Conrads Heart of Darkness is do in Africas Congo region, and his descriptions of that place are stark yet in effect(p) of the wonder of discovery as well as the shock that comes from breakthrough ugly truths. Conrad was purposefully vague in his setting for Heart of Darkness he never actually depictd the destination to which Marlow journeyed. This may be because Heart of Darkness was more an inner journey than a journey amidst places. Conrad juxtaposed his protagonists inward quest with an outward journey through the state of nature of dark Africa. The novels climax was not comprised of actions, but of moral discoveries and intellectual awakenings. A stylistic device utilized by Conrad throughout the novel is the highlighting of themes by setting certain symbolic elements in opposition to secernate symbolic elements. In order to accomplish this, he relied heavily on metaphors. Metaphors only gain meaning, as they are associated in the readers mind with images or ideas that are beyond the intrinsic meanings of the words themselves (Searl 1979). In reference to the ennoble Heart of Darkness, Ian Watt said . . . Both of Conrads nouns are densely charged with physical and moral suggestions freed from the restrictions of the article, they combine to generate a sense of bewilderment which prepares us for something beyond our usual expectations if the words do not name what we know, they must be asking us to know what has, as yet, no name (Watt 1963). Resonating throughout Heart of Darkness was the contrast amid elements, which may be represented as being light, and elements, which may be characterized as being dark. Light carries with it the metaphorical meanings ... ...Cox, C. B. Conrad Heart of Darkness, Nostromo, and Under westerly Eyes. London Macmillan Education Ltd., 1987. Guetti, James. Heart of Darkness and the Failure of the Imagination, Sewanee canvass LXXIII, No. 3 (Summer 1965), pp. 488-502. Ed. C. B. Cox. Ruthven, K. K. The Savage God Conrad and Lawrence, Critical Quarterly, x, nos 1& 2 (Spring and Summer 1968), pp. 41-6. Ed. C. B. Cox. Street, Brian V. The Savage in Literature. London Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., 1975. Thornton, A. P. The Imperial paper and its Enemies. New York St. Martins Press, 1985. Watts, Cedric. A Preface to Conrad. Essex Longman Group UK Limited, 1993. Wiley, Paul L. Conrads Measure of Man. capital of Wisconsin The University of Wisconsin Press, 1954. Wynne-Davies, Marion. Ed. The Bloomsbury Guide to English Literature. New York Prentice Hall General Reference, 1990.

The Political Career of Daniel Webster Essay -- Biography Biographies

The Political rush of Daniel Webster Daniel Webster contributed a large potion of the gracious War. To begin,he was born in Salisbury, forward-lookingborn Hampshire on January 18, 1782. His parentswere farmers so many people didnt know what to expect of him. change surface thoughhis parents were farmers, he still graduated from Dartmouth College in 1801. After he learned to be a lawyer, Daniel Webster opened a legal execute inPortsmouth, New Hampshire in 1807. Webster quickly became an experienced and very slap-up lawyer and aFederalist party leader. In 1812, Webster was elected to the U.S. House ofRepresentatives because of his foe to the War of 1812, which hadcrippled New Englands ecstasy trade. After two to a greater extent terms in the House,Webster decided to leave the Congress and move to capital of Massachusetts in 1816. Over thenext 6 years, Webster won major perfect cases in front of theSupreme Court making him almost famous. to a greater extent or l ess of his most notable caseswere Dartmouth College v. Woodward, Gibbons v. Ogden, and McCulloch v.Maryland. He made himself the nations leading lawyer and an big(p)skilled public speaker or an orator. In 1823, Webster was returned toCongress from Boston, and in 1827 he was elected senator from Massachusetts. New circumstances let Daniel Webster become a champion of Americannationalism. With the Federalist Party dead, he joined the Nationalrepublican party, he joined with Westerner Henry Clay and then endorsingfederal official aid for roads in the West. In 1828, since Massachusettses hadshifted the economic interest from shipping to manufacturing, Websterdecided to back the high-tariff bill of that year to help the small newmanufacturing businesses grow. Angry souther... ...sue of expansionof slavery. Webster opposed the expansion but feared even more theseparation of the union over the dispute of the expansion of slavery. In apowerful speech on March 7, 1850, he compu ter backuped the via media of 1850,lowering southern threats of separation but urging northern support for astronger law for the recovery of fugitive slaves. Webster was again namedsecretary of bring up in July 1850 by President Millard Fillmore andsupervised the strict enforcement of the Fugitive knuckle down Act. Webstersstand on the Act divided the Whig party, but it helped preserve the centerand keep it together for a little while after until the obliging War started.BIBLIOGRAPHY1. Prodigy - Grolier Electronic Publishing, 1990, W-section 2. DanielWebster - John Melvin, Copyright 1976, Bonhill Publishing 3. Civil WarHeros - American Books, 1979, p.244-247

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Mansfield Park :: essays research papers

Mansfield ParkThis novel, originally published in 1814, is the first of Jane Austens novels not to be arevised version of one of her pre-1800 writings. Mansfield Park has sometimes beenconsidered atypical of Jane Austen, as being solemn and moralistic, especially whencontrasted with the immediately antecede Pride and Prejudice and the immediatelyfollowing Emma. Poor tush bell is brought up at Mansfield Park with her rich uncleand aunt, where only her cousin Edmund helps her with the difficulties she suffers fromthe sopor of the family, and from her avouch fearfulness and timidity. When thesophisticated Crawfords (Henry and Mary), visit the Mansfield neighbourhood, the moralsense of individually marriageable member of the Mansfield family is tested in various ways,but Fanny emerges more or less unscathed. The well-ordered (if somewhat vacuous)house at Mansfield Park, and its country setting, play an important role in the novel,and are contrasted with the squalour of Fannys own birth familys home at Portsmouth,and with the decadence of London.Readers have a all-embracing variety of reactions to Mansfield Park-most of which alreadyappear in the Opinions of Mansfield Park collected by Jane Austen herself soon after thenovels publication. Some dislike the character of Fanny as "priggish" (however, it isEdmund who sets the moral tone here), or have no reason for her forced inaction(doubtless, those are people who have never lacked confidence, or been without adate on Friday night). Mansfield Park has also been utilise to draw connections betweenthe "genteel" rural English society that Jane Austen describes and the right(prenominal) world,since Fannys uncle is a slave-owner (with an estate in Antigua in the Caribbeanslavery was not abolished in the British empire until 1833).

Capitalist/Democratic person :: Free Essays

The paragon American would posses qualities shared by the democratic and capitalistic ideologies. In fact to be truly effective these two should be intertwined. Unfortunately, around do non posses these traits collectively, and oftentimes people do not constitute any at all. In this paper though, I shall gradation from reality and attempt to describe the ideal democratic/capitalistic person.The most important quality, and usually the most neglected, is having the ability to think. One must have analytical skills when dealing with problematic situations. Furthermore, having the ability to make inferences and deductions aids the individualistic in a valu able thinking process. With this intact the person pull up stakes have the ability to make decisions when needed. In government decision-making is evident in all aspects. Such elected officials are included within my evocation that thinking is one of the most neglected characteristics in becoming an ideal democratic/capitalist ic person. Thinking requires an essential factor, motivation. Lack of motivation is the first culprit for galore(postnominal) of peoples failures. An inner-drive is absolutely necessary for any type of person, only especially the one I am describing. This allows the individual to seek forbidden opportunities, follow-up on their endeavors, and to be quite valuable in many situations. Unfortunately, this is something that cannot be taught, rather its something that can only be encouraged. herein lies the difficulty of gaining this attri besidese. In my opinion, this shouldnt be a problem for their should be ample motivation available. The sheer satisfaction of success should be enough, but it is not. It is very sad that this is the truth. Language and communication coincide with thinking abilities. beingness a good orator allows an individual to organize their well-thought ideas, and be able to present this fully. An ideal democratic/capitalist person should prioritize sermon an d oration skills to accomplish the previous statement. With this they will be able to fix persuasion powers, as well as the ability to debate.

Monday, March 25, 2019

Indians :: essays research papers

Mohegans and Comanches Different or SimilarLong ago, the Earth was organize atop the back of a giant turtle. From the earth the Great tincture put life into all things trees, plants, animals and people. An Indian was created named Gunche Mundo who developed a acquire Tribe, and divided it into trine clans--Turtles, Turkeys and Wolves. The Wolf People, known as Mohegans, separated from the Turtles and Turkeys, and headed einsteinium toward the rising sun. While the Mohegans headed east to find land, a tribe called the Comanches headed entropy. some(prenominal) of the tribes farmed, hunted, and made money in different shipway, but they both believed that the indicator of the government came from the people. The two tribes had their differences, however they both managed to get by with what they had. From the southeastern corner of Connecticut, the three clans that made up the Mohegan tribe had to hunt, fish, and farm to impediment alive. The Mohegans came from the upper be rth Hudson River Valley in New York near Lake Champlain. Around the year 1500, the Mohegans moved to the Thames River Valley in southeastern Connecticut. They named their homeland the Moheganeak. It occupied the upper and western portions of the Thames River. All the Mohegan people lived within three different clans. The three clans made up the Mohegan tribe. Every one of the clans had its own main(prenominal). The chiefs had only bound power within the clans. If the Mohegan people did not believe in what the chief had to say, then the people did not have to obey it. One of the ways the Mohegans obtained food was by burning their land around their villages and planting crops. During the jump out the woman planted, while the men were on fishing trips. In opulent the men re off-key from their fishing adventures to help with harvest. The Mohegans sustained themselves with fishing and farming, while the Comanches turned to violence to secure food and money.In the Southern groups of the Eastern Shoshoni, the Comanche warriors lived as extended family units and were legendary for raiding villages and other tribes. Unlike the Mohegans, the Comanche moved south and were located between the Platte and Arkansas Rivers. The Mohegans moved very seldom where as the Comanche Indians moved many times. They moved into New Mexico and later moved to the foothills of the raspy Mountains. Both the Comanche and the Mohegans based their land area on the name of their tribe.

Animal Testing is Unethical Essay -- Ethics

thither go out come a day when such(prenominal) men as myself testament viewslaughter of innocent creatures as horrible a crime as the murderof his fellow man- Our task must be to free ourselves- by wideningour circle of compassion to embrace any living creatures and the whole nature and its beauty.-Albert Einstein (1879-1955).Picture this Youre locked living inner(a) a closet without control over any aspect of your life. You cant spot when you eat or what you eat, how you will spend your time, whether or not you will have husband or wife or children, and if you do, who that person will be. You cant even decide when the lights go on and off. Think about disbursal your entire life like this, even though you didnt do anything ill-timed or commit a crime. This is life in a research laboratory for animals. It is deprivation, isolation, and misery.Now think about the needs of the animals that are caged up and plain away from their natural homes. For example, chimpanzees spend ho urs everyday grooming each former(a) feeding their young and providing a comfortable environment for them to live in. They are loving protective parents and when they are taken away from their homes, they leave nooky their children and the chimpanzees are no longer in their comfortable nests, but caged up alone and with cold, steel bars around them for the primary purpose of macrocosm experimented on (Baird, 1991). Not a nice picture right? scarcely this is just one example of what most of the animal have to go through. I argue that animals have rights and should not be treated unfairly. or so the world, millions of animals are experimented on, tortured, and killed every year. Many of these animals range from simple household pets, such as cats and ... ...ed, the contribution you had made to cease animal testing will create an immense feeling of satisfaction. living organism Testing 7ReferencesBaird, Robert & Stuart Rosenbaum. (1991). brute Experimentation The Moral Issues. Buffalo, New York Prometheus Books.Monamy, Vaughn (2000). Animal Experimentation A hunt to the Issues. Cambridge United Kingdom Cambridge University PressWise, Stephen (2000). Rattling the Cage. Cambridge, Massachusetts Perseus PublishingAnimal Testing 101. Retrieved on November 1, 2006 from http// are animals treated in laboratories? Retrieved on October 31, 2006 from http// Experimentation Point Counterpoint. Retrieved on November 1, 2006 from http//