Monday, September 30, 2019

Individual Learning Project Essay

The organization selected for analysis and evaluation is American Lake Credit Union. This organization is composed of two main branches, both located in Tacoma, Washington. In contrast to banks, Credit Unions are smaller organizations and are directed by members who are selected via a vote to serve in an all-volunteer board of directors for the organization (Scott, and Johnston, p.2, 2011). Specifically, this credit union was founded in 1948 and has grown since then. (C. Fitzer, personal communication April 7, 2014). For instance, although the organization is small in size through a partnership with a credit union network, it is able to provide general financial services at diverse locations throughout the country (CO-OP Financial Services, 2013). In addition, the active CEO Fantz (2013) asserted that the organization’s mission is to â€Å"provide a variety of quality services to a diversified membership while maintaining financial soundness†; additionally, they current ly reported close to 50 billion dollars in assets on organization’s balance sheet. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) Analysis Arumugam, Chang, Ooi, and The (2008), emphasized that in order to facilitate the drive towards high performance, many companies are using self-assessment tools to measure their current position and develop strategy in order to asses where they are and where they want to be within their industry. (p.141). SWOT analysis is one of this tools or processes. Boone and Kurtz (2006) defined the concept of SWOT analysis as a methodical approach to develop strategy as it compels managers to do an internal reality check, and an analysis of the external environment (p.274-275). This assertion is echoed by Blocher, Stout, Juras, and Cokins (2013) in which the scholars lectured the process of SWOT analysis as a process that provides the opportunity to methodologically examine internal and external factors in order to complete a self-assessment of the organization, and examine the environment in order to create a solid foundation for sound strategy for the organization (p. 36-38). The general quadrants of a complete SWOT analysis are strengths, weakness,  opportunities, and threats. These are listed in Table 1 for American Lake Credit Union. Table 1 Strengths -High quality aggressive employee training programs parallel with organization high audit and regulatory compliance rates -Membership to CO-OP Shared Branch Network 1 -Local Market Position/Community Relations Program -Cost Advantage and Pricing compared to banks -Physical Locations -Strong and Experienced Managers Weaknesses -Employee Turn-Over -Requirements to become a member -Lack of Market Differentiation as it relate to financial Services2 -Only two physical branches -Lack of a business/Market Development Section -Technology, bad turn around in communications equipment repair, need to redo contract for local IT Support Opportunities -Online Market -Branch Expansion -External Training Program -Rotating Customer Base in the local installation -College population in nearby universities -Available location for Branch at Air Force Location Threats -Military drawdown (long term), affect main target market -More exposed to economic issues (recessions) than bigger organizations due to limited size -Loss of one segment of the market with the deactivation of 4-2 Brigade Combat Team -Columbia Bank Plans to Open Facility in the immediate area 2 -Cyber Crimes External Note. Lists Adapted from (C. Fitzer, personal communication April 7, 2014) with the exception of: 1. CO-OP Financial Services. (2013). What is CO-OP ATM and CO-OP Shared Branch?. Retrieved from 2. (C.H. Chapman, personal Communication April 8, 2014) This source is a marketing consultant for non-profit organizations, has worked closely with the American Lake Credit Union, and provided fresh feed back into the credit union during the interviews. A brief discussion of Table 1 is provided below: In the area of strengths the one of the most important strengths provided during the interview was their current training program for federal  regulatory compliance, this put the organization at an advantage even with more developed organizations In the area of weaknesses, the biggest challenge was employee turnover. Even with the recession and the current job market good talent could and can be found, but it is hard to retain with the current compensation and benefit plans offered In the area of opportunities, the online market presents a strong market that the organization has not exploited as much as they could In the area of threats, the main target market of the American Lake Credit Union is the current drawdown within the Department of Defense structure, in the short term, the population have currently lost 1400 service members and their families, in the long term more loses in market are expected (C. Fitzer, personal communication April 7, 2014) American Lake Credit Union Balanced Scorecard Soderberg, Kalagnanam, Sheehan, and Vaidyanathan (2011) presented the balance scorecard as a strategic planning procedural tool used by organizations to balance financial concerns, customer concerns, process concerns, and innovation concerns with the main purpose of developing appropriate strategy in favor of a more favorable market position (p. 689-690). Similarly, Lawrence and Webber (2008) illustrated the process as a concoction of focused key quadrants, people and knowledge, internal, customer, and financial indicators with the main purpose of developing metrics to measure all areas of performance (p.79). In the case of American Lake Credit Union, interview and analysis with C. Fitzer and C.H. Chapman provided enough data to produce the balanced scorecard depicted in Table 2 below. -Reduce Exposure to default Loans -Cash Flow/Balance Sheet -Selected cost savings in utilities and materials -Reduction in days for accounts receivable -Customer Service/Satisfaction -Customer Loyalty -Trend in Customers that transferred direct deposit accounts -Customer Surveys (Measured Quarterly (QTLY)) -Mystery Shopper feedback to manager -Trend in returning customers – Number of Customer complaints -10 new customers a week (Account Holding) -10% increase in market share by end of fiscal year 2015 -95% Satisfaction on surveys per quarter -100% satisfaction in mystery shopper experience -Less than eight percent customer complaint rate quarterly -Participate in community awareness events -Sponsor small activities for customers -Provide Western Union Services at discount to customers with direct deposit to the institution -Open new Branch at local AF Base -Implement Secret Shopper Program -Implement Customer Service Training Table 2 (continued) General Quadrants Critical Success Factors/Goals Metrics/Measured Trends Towards Goals Goal Initiative Internal Process -Processes Efficiency and Quality -Productivity when doing direct customer interactions -Number of errors in financial processes -Cycle time/customer wait time -Time spent doing internal tasks -Less than 5 errors per shift -Less than 10 minutes from check in to check out for customers regarding of the time of the day -Decrease time doing internal tasks by 25% without loss of quality -Implement lean six sigma principles -Sustain compliance Training Program -Integrate yearly refresher for all employees (training will be employee led) Learning and Growth -Skill Development and Sustainment -Competitive Benefits/Compensation -Employee Access and Input in Strategic Planning -Number of errors in financial processes -Employee Surveys -Employee Turn-over rates -90% employee satisfaction rate in surveys -Minimize employee turnover rate by % by 50% FY 15 -Integrate yearly refresher for all employees (training will be employee led) -Implement a more comprehensive benefit package for employees, main target is well performing and those with longevity -Involved Employees in strategy development and asked for feedback on current decision Note. Lists Adapted from (C. Fitzer, personal communication, April 7, 2014) with the exception of: 1. CO-OP Financial Services. (2013). What is CO-OP ATM and CO-OP Shared Branch?. Retrieved from 2. (C.H. Chapman, personal communication, April 8, 2014) This source is a marketing consultant for non-profit organizations, has worked closely with the American Lake Credit Union, and provided fresh feed back into the credit union during the interviews. Discussion of Critical Success Factors (CSFs) Blocher et al. (2013) defined critical success factors as â€Å"measures of the aspects of the firm’s performance that are essential to its competitive advantage and therefore to its success† (p. 898). Tables 2 depicted the selected CSFs within the standard four quadrants of the balance score card, and these are discussed in detail below. Financial The financial success factors are important because these defined the aspect of the main purpose of a business, to make a profit. The specific CSFs within the financial quadrant and the rational for their selection are explained below. Increase Gross Profit. This was selected by the interviewed organization representative because in her professional opinion it was the best way to determine the effectiveness and financial health of the organization (C. Fitzer, personal communication, April 7, 2014). Furthermore, in accordance to Bloomsbury Information (2009), this an important factor to consider because a high gross profit margin ratio, high gross profit margin ratio indicates that a business can make a reasonable profit on sales, as long as overheads do not increase. Investors pay attention to the gross profit margin ratio because it tells them how efficient your business is compared to competitors. It is sensible to track gross profit margin ratios over a number of years to see if company earnings are consistent, growing, or declining. For businesses, knowing your gross profit margin ratio is important because it tells you whether your business is pricing goods and services effectively. Reduce exposure to default loans. The concept implies reduction of credit risk. The term credit risk is illustrated by He and Xiong (2012), as the risk the organization takes when issuing a loan; furthermore, if the organization’s loan or debt market deteriorates, and loans go into default the organization would take loses in its investment (p. 391). This is important because if this risk is identified and mitigated in an effective way the organization will not be as exposed to financial loses. Customer Factors This specific quadrant addresses the customer and objectives to increase or develop value and differentiation from the point of view of the customer (Beard, 2009, p. 279). Specific CSFs for the organization in this specific quadrant are as follows. Prospective customer perspective towards the organization- This refers specifically for that segment of the market that are not customers of the organization yet. Lautenslager (2003) reported that aachieving a good perspective from this outer segment will allow the organization to attract new customers, expand its market, and build the  organization as an attractive brand which can translate in to new business and profits. Customer Service/Satisfaction- This term refers to the extent that the clientele is pleased with the product line or service provided by the organization. As a general concept this is important because if the customer is unhappy is likely that he would not comeback; furthermore, it is likely that he will walk away, repel other prospective customers, or even existing customers (Naik, 2011). Customer Loyalty- This objective is one of the fundaments of many business organizations. This is extremely important for any organization because once customer loyalty is achieved, these customers will purchase the organization’s products and services repetitively, the more loyal the customer, the harder it will be for a competitor to draw him, and they can provide a good source of advertising and new customers by word of mouth. (C.H. Chapman, personal Communication April 8, 2014). Internal Process Internal processes are another part of the quadrant that when disregarded can cost the organization in terms of effectives, quality, gross margin, and revenue. It refers to those processes that are internal to the organization, like appraisals, self-audits, customer interactions, and quality checks for example. Processes Efficiency and Quality- This area refers to the internal processes of the organization, for example, it was mentioned during the interviews that that one employee on the organization creates a weekly balance sheet, and that job usually takes about one hour. Streamlining this and similar other processes save the organization on employee hours that could be used for customer care or employee training (C. Fitzer, personal communication, April 8, 2014). Productivity when doing direct customer interactions- This refers to the amount of time that it takes to do a customer transaction from the moment that they enter the facility until they are complete. It may take a customer about 20 minutes during the busy time of the day to perform the transaction due to crowding. Altering the way the organization conduct some of this processes will allow for the â€Å"line† to move faster, and affecting the customer satisfaction factor. Learning and Growth The quadrant of learning and growth is fundamental to the American Lake Credit Union because of the environment in which financial organizations operate in our time. Constant changes to the financial regulations at the state, and federal levels, added to the technological advances call for continuous organizational development in order to remain relevant with the environment. Therefore, developing a learning collective workforce and retaining this work force is fundamental to any business organization today. The specific CSFs on this quadrant are discussed below. Skill Development and Sustainment- Currently, the organization has a very strong training program in the areas of federal compliance. The intent is to sustain this strong program, and enhanced it by adding employee training in new technologies, internal processes, and customer service; moreover, ensuring the program is employee led and centric, thus, giving a sense of ownership to the workforce (C. Fitzer, personal communica tion, April 8, 2014). Competitive Benefits/Compensation- C. Fitzer (personal communication, April 8, 2014) mentioned that this was one of the main employee complaints in regards to the employee programs within the organization. Implementing, a more comprehensive benefits/compensation plan will ensure that employee turnover rate is minimized and allow the organization to retain the experienced employees. Employee Access and Input in Strategic Planning- Allowing employees to have more impute on the decision making process for the organization will give management a fresher perspective that can be valuable when making those decisions. Plus, it will give sense of ownership to the workforce constraining any resistance to strategic changes. Evaluation of American Lake Credit Union in Achieving its CSFs Financial Any for profit organization is always on the look to increase its profit and solidify or expand its market position. Firstly, the risk reduction initiatives of education and member involvement combined with market expansion should facilitate the current goal of 10% increase in gross profit margin by the end of FY 15 (personal communication, April 8, 2014). Examining the balance Sheet quarterly will allow the organization to follow up and address trends that would constrain this goal. Currently, on the last quarter they were down by 2% from the quarter before, but on this quarter they are up 4% (personal communication, April 8, 2014). This may sound like a wave of percentages, but taking other factors into consideration as the  proposed expansion to the local AFB, cutting unnecessary costs on internal processes and supplies, initiatives to reduce cycle time for accounts receivable, and other initiatives within Table 2 an increase of 10% gross margin by the end of FY 15 is a realisti c and achievable goal for this organization. Customer Satisfaction Customer satisfaction will be measured monthly, analyzed and evaluated quarterly, taking in to consideration trends in customers that transferred direct deposit accounts, customer surveys, mystery shopper feedback, and trends in returning customers (C. Fitzer, personal communication, April 8, 2014). Currently’ the organization have a high customer satisfaction rate with survey results depicting up to 88% on all customer surveys and only three formal complaints last quarter (C. H. Chapman, personal communication, April 8, 2014). This fact combined with the implementation of the secret shopper program on the first quarter of FY 15, and the customer care training program initiatives will give a customer care advantage to the organization over other local competitors (C. Fitzer, personal communication, April 8, 2014). On the other hand, although the process for customer complaints seemed to be effective at the collection and solving states, there was no current intent on adding these as part of the customer care training program. This was recommended by this author to the manager under interview. Using an objective approach, after taking into consideration the current customer satisfaction trends and rates, the upcoming initiatives, it can be assessed that the goal of 95% customer satisfaction rate will be achieved and likely surpassed by the end of FY 15. Internal Process American Credit Union is looking to reduce errors in internal processes, increase effectiveness in customer processes, and decrease the time doing internal tasks. The current goals of less than five errors per shift, less than 10 minutes from check in to check out for customers regarding of the time of the day, decrease time doing internal tasks by 25% without loss of quality are achievable, but will require commitment of the leadership and the workforce. For instance, sustaining the current regulatory compliance training program, and implementing lean six sigma principles should provide  the tools to succeed in this area. However, with all the other initiatives on the horizon, and the plans for expansion in to the local AFB it will require extra effort for the organization as a collective to achieve those goals without de-prioritizing other initiatives. Learning and Growth In the case of American Lake Credit Union a robust education and training program, a more comprehensive concoction of compensation and benefits will translate into the development of a better and brighter workforce, and the retaining of this work force. This will be measure by taking into consideration the number of errors in financial processes, employee Surveys, and employee turn-over rates. Some of the initiatives on this area such as consider input from employees in strategic decisions and sustainment training will sharply motivate employees within this area. Moreover, the current goal of 90% employee satisfaction rate in surveys and to minimize employee turnover rate by 50% by FY 15 is very achievable if this area is somewhat prioritized by management. However, as reported in the article Putting People First (2011), management must keep in mind that newly trained and educated employees will take their knowledge and new skill sets somewhere else for better pay and or benefits, if the proposed compensation and benefit packets are implemented (p.25-26). Final Thoughts The purpose of this document was to provide a short description of American Credit Union along with a SWOT Analysis, Balanced Score card, and discussion of these. It can be assessed with the information provided that although there are challenges ahead, the current financial status of the organization selected is healthy and the ambitions for the future achievable as they exploit their strengths, their environment, and address their weaknesses. Lastly, as long as the management remained focused, committed, and is able to maintain the workforce motivated it is likely that the organization will achieve its goals. References Arumugam, V., Chang, H., Ooi, K., and Teh, P. (2009). â€Å"Self-assessment of TQM practices: a case analysis†, The TQM Journal, 21(1), 46 – 58. Retrieved from =1766744&show=abstract#sthash.TkDGZoZ7.dpuf Beard, D. F. (2009.). Successful applications of the balanced scorecard in higher education. Journal of Education for Business, 84(5), 275-282. Retrieved from Blocher, E., Stout, D. S., Juras, P.E., & Cokins, G. (2013). Cost Management: A Strategic Emphasis (6th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin. Boone, L. and Kurtz, D. (2006). Contemporary Business. Mason, OH: Thomson South-Western CO-OP Financial Services. (2013). What is CO-OP ATM and CO-OP Shared Branch?. Retrieved from Fantz, E. (2013). Annual Report. Retrieved from Bloomsbury Information. (2009). Gross profit margin ratio. Retrieved from He, Z., & Xiong, W. (2012). Rollover Risk and Credit Risk. Journal of Finance, 67(2), 391-429. Lautenslager, A. (2003), Why You Need PR: Getting the word out about your product or service should always be a priority. Retrieved form Lawrence, A.T., and Weber, J. (2008).Business & Society Stakeholders, Ethics, Public Policy (12th ed). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin. Naik, A. (2011). Why is Customer Satisfaction Important. Retrieved from Putting people first. (2011). Devel opment and Learning in Organizations, 25(1), 25-27. doi: Scott, K., and Johnston, C. R. (2011). Factors affecting the adoption of consumer oriented information technology biometrics solutions by the credit union industry. Journal of Technology Research, 2, 1-13. Retrieved from Soderberg, M., Kalagnanam, S., Sheehan, N., and Vaidyanathan, G. (2011) â€Å"When is a balanced scorecard a balanced scorecard?, International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 60(7) 688-708

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Recommendation to Counter DoS Attack

Recommend in an executive summary measures to counter this type of DoS Attack.The university network was a victim of a DDoS attack. Whereby a cyber criminal first acquired administrator access. We suspect that the attacker gained access to the network from an internal computer, most likely from a student PC in one of the labs. The attacker likely used keylogger software to discover administrator credentials.Once the attacker had the administrator access the systems he/she was able to create BOTs and push to many student PCs located in various labs. The attacker then initiate a control attack by activating the BOT's in order to form a BotNet (a.k.a. Zombie Network) with the goal of intentionally causing online services to become unusable to students (ICECC, 2009). It is important to note that a single BOT alone could not have cause the registration server unavailable. It was the combined effect of using many BOTs at once that produced the attacker's desired effect of overflowing the r esources of the registration web server and rendering it unusable.Recommendation to Counter this type of DoS attackTo prevent or limit the impact of keyloggers: Deploy a firewall to block known keylogger software. Educate facility not to open email from unknown users and not to click on links in emails from unknown users. Create a Policy whereby users cannot install new software to a machine without opening a ticket with the helpdesk or requesting administrator access (ICECC, 2009). The student computers should be preloaded with all required applications.Deploy a file monitoring program, such as Tripwire to detect and notify if any changes have occurred to files (ICECC, 2009). Passwords should always be encrypted and never traverse the network in the clear. Harden Windows by making sure that the operating system are keep current with latest patches (ICECC, 2009). Keep anti-virus, anti-spyware programs up-to-date.Install firewall packages on all computers. Deploy an intrusion-detecti on (IDS) and intrusion-prevention systems (IPS). Segmenting off network with the use of routers or firewalls is another method (Schifreen, 2006). However, the routers or firewalls will have to be configured to detect and block suspected BOT traffic (please see network diagram for item with Blue Dotted Squares).ConclusionIt is important to note that there is no method that will secure a network totally from attack. However, we can prevent some of the most common attack vectors. Therefore security personnel must remain vigilant and seek to prevent the new level of attack (Schifreen, 2006).

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Promotional and Advertising Strategies Essay

The author comes from Iran, with an ideological and religious fanatic government which owns and controls all of economical and industrial activities with an armed to teeth minority. In such countries they can produce and sell any low quality with any prices that they want, and actually customers have not many choices, and almost all of promotional techniques and strategies are meaningless! So here we are talking about free trade and free market countries like US. This paper review and scrutiny the circumstances surrounding the promotional and advertising Strategies for two automotive companies: TOYATA and HUNDAI. The author is very curious about those companies, because HUNDAI (1967) began car production almost 32 years after TOYOTA (1935)! But now, in all aspects both companies are equal in quality, branding, marketing, price and customer service, even HUNDAI is further! HMC (Hyundai Motor Company) was unknown brand with low quality and cheap price cars, but after it came in the US market converted its products to high quality and luxury quickly and stealing loyal customers away from many industry pioneers! But how was this late-moving car maker able to gain an advantage in this extremely competitive market? (Graf B, 2013) Introduction Definition of Advertising: The term â€Å"Advertising† first appeared in the 17th century. It has its root in the Latin word â€Å"advertere,† which means, â€Å"to  make people notice or know.† It can be roughly explained as â€Å"to extensively notify the public.† According to the Dictionary of Chinese Etymology, the Chinese definition of advertising means, â€Å"openly announce to the public,† with the annotation of â€Å"such as putting up notices or publishing advertisements in newspapers.† (Yan Boqin, 1978) Definition of Marketing: â€Å"Marketing† is an economic term meaning promotion and distribution. Originally applied in agriculture, it drew more and more attention after the 19th century and spread rapidly. From economic, social, business and customers’ angles, the property of its definition can be determined (Li Zongru, 2004). For highlighting the brand in the eyes of public and attracting new customers, product promotion is one of the essentials. There are many channels to promote a product or service. Successful promotions strongly depends on believe and culture of people, style of living, income level, government policies and economical and industrial infrastructures. Some firms use multiple methods, while others may use different methods for various marketing purposes. Irrespective of the type of service or product, a strong group of promotional strategies can help position the company in a favorable light with not only current customers but new ones as well. The following are top ten promotional strategies: â€Å"1- Contests, 2-Social Media, 3-Mail Order Marketing 4-Product Giveaways, 5-Point-of-Sale Promotion and End-Cap Marketing, 6-Customer Referral Incentive Program, 7-Causes and Charity, 8-Branded Promotional Gifts, 9-Customer Appreciation Events, 10-After-Sale Customer Surveys† (Carl Hose. 2014; Small businesses; Retrieved December 2, 2014 from Comparing the promotional strategies used by Toyota and Hyundai for a similar product Today almost all of carmakers have a lot of experiences and they have access to modern and new technologies. So they can produce good quality and good design cars and also offer good services to customers, especially in US, there is no way to sell any products with low quality and low customer  service. In result the best promotional strategies are those that involve culture, attitudes and beliefs of the people. The following are some examples of such strategies. Green Environment: Increasing public awareness about environmental protection, governments forced to implement hard regulation and criteria for automobile firms. Toyota published on its website: 1. Diversifying energy sources: â€Å"Toyota is developing various new technologies from the perspective of energy saving and diversifying energy sources. Environment has been first and most important issue in priorities of Toyota and working toward creating a prosperous society and clean world.† 2. Fuel Cell: â€Å"By generating electricity from hydrogen, Toyota’s fuel cell vehicles are not only environmentally friendly they’re also highly energy efficient. With such eco-friendly characteristics, Fuel Cell Vehicles are the next step toward achieving sustainable mobility.† 3. Plug-In Hybrid: â€Å"Introducing the next step for eco-friendly cars; a combination of the proven engineering of current hybrids with home recharging. It has an increased electric range and produces lower emissions.† 4. Measuring environmental issues surrounding vehicles: â€Å"For more improvements in efficiency, Toyota proactively manages power train efficiency, reduces vehicle load, and controls energy management by integration of fuel-saving technologies such as charge control, idling stop, etc.† 5. Various vehicles: â€Å"Along with our emphasis of conventional vehicles and hybrid vehicles as fundamental core technology while pursuing further advancement.† 6. Alternative fuels: â€Å"Based on these core technologies, Toyota will develop next-generation vehicles utilizing alternative fuels such as gas fuel, electricity and hydrogen.† (Retrieved December 2, 2014 from _technology/) Hyundai published on its website: 1. Blue Drive: Our Blue Drive ® technology gives you lower pollution and higher performance. Blue Drive is a philosophy that guides Hyundai in its effort to become the automotive leader in sustainability. It’s helped focus our engineers and designers on creating lighter vehicles, developing more efficient power trains and even inventing proprietary hybrid technologies.  2. Plug-in and zero-emission: In the future, Blue Drive will expand to include plug-in hybrid vehicles, zero-emission electric vehicles and fuel-cell vehicles that run entirely on hydrogen. Their only emission is water. 3. Electric hybrid: Hyundai introduced the first electric hybrid with electrifying performance. Our engineers have invented the industry’s most advanced hybrid vehicle. 4. New battery: Unlike other hybrids on the market, ours uses a patented Lithium Polymer battery. It has 40% less volume; it’s 25% lighter and 10% more efficient. T he battery also has a longer life-span-it comes with a lifetime warranty guarantee. So you can feel good about preserving the environment for the life of your vehicle. (Retrieved December 2, 2014 from Slogan: â€Å"An advertising slogan is usually a short tagline – less than five words — that tells potential customers the benefits they can expect when choosing your product or service, or establishes your company brand.† (Kristen Hamlin, 2014; Retrieved December 2, 2014 from importance-ad-slogans-31343.html) 1. Toyota’s ownership slogans: marketing efforts in North America have focused on emphasizing the positive experiences of ownership and vehicle quality. The ownership experience has been targeted in slogans such as â€Å"You asked for it! You got it!† (1975–1979); â€Å"Oh, what a feeling!† (1979 – September 1985, in the US); â€Å"Who could ask for anything more?† (September 1985 – 1989); â€Å"I love what you do for me, Toyota!† (1989–1997); â€Å"Everyday† (1997–2001); â€Å"Get the feeling!† (2001–2004); â€Å"Moving Forward† (2004–2012); and â€Å"Let’s Go Places† (2012–present). 2. Hyundai’s Brand slogan: â€Å"NEW THINKING. NEW POSSIBILITIES.†; reflects the will of Hyundai Motor Company to create new possibilities to benefit the world and its people by encouraging and developing new thinking. All members of Hyundai have the brand slogan deeply engraved in their hearts as they move forward in their effort to provide new values and experiences desired by today’s customers through innovative ways that are unique to the brand, driven by new thinking about customers and cars.( Retrieved December 3, 2014 from http://worldwide Information/BrandSlogan/index.html) New Compact Vehicle Strategy: According to the Ford India President, compact car sales are expected to double by 2018 from around one million units in  2013. This surge in demand in expected to be fueled by rising disposable incomes in the second most populous country in the world, and also owing to the increasing demand for fuel-efficient smaller cars due to rising fuel prices.( Trefis Team ,2014. Retrieved December 3, 2014 from /greatspeculations/2014/06/13/tata-motors-looks-to-improve-passenger-car-sales-by-penetrating-the-compact-segment/) 1. Toyota: The automobile market in emerging markets is growing each year in tandem with the economic growth of each country. Within those markets, there has been marked growth in the sales of compact vehicles, so Toyota is promoting a new compact vehicle strategy that emphasizes the compact vehicle lineup and seeks to meet the needs of consumers in emerging markets. 2. Hyundai: The South Korean automaker ranked seventh among mass-market brands in the this year’s U.S. Initial Quality Study by J.D. Power and Associates, topping such brands as Toyota, Infiniti, Audi and Lincoln. Hyundai’s Accent compact and Elantra small car were named among the top three cars in their segments.(Hans Greimel, 2011. Retrieved December 2, 2014 from /20101206/RETAIL03/ 312069982/hyundai-plans-new-brand-strategy) Financial Services Strategy: Every year, millions of people around the world transition out of poverty in any number of ways—by adopting new farming technologies, investing in new business opportunities, or finding new jobs, for example. Effective tools for saving, sending, and borrowing money and mitigating financial risks can help people weather setbacks and achieve greater financial stability over the long term. (Retrieved December 4, 2014 from http://www. /Financial-Services-for-the-Poor) 1. Toyota: Toyota Financial Services has constructed a global network that covers approximately 90% of the markets in which Toyota sells its vehicles. Mainly concentrated on auto loans, leases and Toyota dealer floor plan requirements, TFS provides auto sales financing to approximately 5.4 million customers. Thus effectively helping them in making their own cars more affordable to their potential consumers all around the world. Again being a strategy that helps them a stronger competitor in the market. 2. Hyundai: Through our service brands, Hyundai Motor Finance and Kia Motors Finance, we provide financial products tailored to meet the needs of Hyundai  and Kia dealerships nationwide, including dealer inventory and facility financing. And, through these dealerships, we provide indirect vehicle financing and leasing solutions to over 1 million retail customers. Our subsidiary, Hyundai Protection Plan, Inc. offers vehicle service contracts and other vehicle protection products under the Hyundai Protection Plan and Power Protect brands. (Retrieved December 2, 2014 from http://www. Hyundaicapital Two uses for consumer-oriented promotions that could assist a company in both the short and long term for the carmaker companies What are consumer-oriented sales promotions? There are two points of view: 1- Retail Promotions consist of inducements offered by retailers to consumers includes retail coupons, price discounts, double coupons, special displays, features etc. 2- Consumer Promotions consist of inducements offered by manufacturers to consumers includes manufacturer’s premiums, bonus packs, coupons, samples, rebates, etc. There are some reasons for the importance of the sales promotion. First, the growth of retailer power in distribution channels has led to an excess in consumer promotions. Sometimes, manufacturers make special offers to consumers because a powerful retailer insisted that they do so. Another time, as a way of neutralizing retailer power by intensification the bonds of loyalty consumers may feel toward the brand. Either way, retailers frequently serve as the driving force behind consumer promotions. Second, the type of competition has converted significantly during recent years resulting in ever greater consumer price sensitivity. The growing of brands and brand extensions, intensity segmented consumer markets, and lower brand loyalty have combined to make consumers much more aware of price given that many product categories are populated by several competitors. Third, price deals have become the rule rather than the exception for many products. Rebates on certain brands of automobiles, department store sales, and coupons on many grocery items are only a few areas where consumers have  grown to expect price breaks. Indeed, the expectation is more than, when possible, many consumers will wait for promotional offers rather than buy with no deal. Fourth, advertising clutter has forced marketers to find new ways of getting consumer attention. Product benefits alone frequently prove insufficient to prompt consumer action much less get their attention. Thus, marketers increasingly look to sales promotion to find ways of breaking through to customers who face a constant bombardment of promotional messages. Eventually increasing of consumer promotion can also be attributed to more pressure on marketing management for short-term results. Investors want to immediate bottom-line results rather than the long-term health or stability of the companies in which they invest. Sales promotions are tools to increase near term sales. However, as their use becomes more common, their costs become regular and recurring and therefore potentially self-defeating. (Retrieved December 5, 2014 from†¦/Consumer%2520Promotion.p) The strategic manner in which the leading car company has made its pricing decisions by using one or more of the four pricing objectives â€Å"The four Ps of marketing is the combination of product, price, place (distribution), and promotion. Marketers develop strategies around these four areas in marketing to enhance branding, sales, and profitability. â€Å" (Ross Gittell, 2014, Retrieved December 5, 2014 from Price is the only revenue generating element amongst the 4ps, the rest being cost centers. Pricing objectives or goals give the company direction to the whole pricing process and consider the following: 1- Survival; 2- Get competitive advantage; 3- Financial, marketing, and strategic objectives of the company; 4- Enhance image of the firm, product or brand; 5- Hold price leadership; 6- Increase market share; 7- Consumer price point and elasticity; 8- Available resources; 9- Catch target of return of investment  and sales; 10- Prevent new entrants; 11- Match competitors prices. Toyota gets credit for being the most known brand on the market; however the Corolla comes up nowhere in the competitor charts in terms of price, model distinction, or performance (TrueTrends, 2012). Providing a competitive advantage for the Corolla requires differentiating the car in pricing, quality, service, innovation, brand, convenience, and anywhere else that makes it more desirable over its competition (McCrimmon, 2008). How Toyota as a leading company can offer lowest prices? i.e. $89 a month for lease! The answer is: by maintaining its lowest costs. Along with differentiation Toyota also uses low cost to try and gain a competitive advantage in the automotive industry. â€Å"Toyota is (or was at the time) the low cost producer in the industry. Toyota achieves its cost leadership strategy by adopting lean production, careful choice and control of suppliers, efficient distribution, and low servicing costs from a quality product.†(Michael E. Porter, 2013) This quote from Michael Porter sums up how Toyota achieves this low cost strategy. Through research, it is evident that Toyota is still the low cost leader in the automotive industry. Societal trends have moved away from an individualistic culture—which identified social status and hierarchy based on material possessions—to an environmentally aware society (Grewal & Levy, 2012). With consumers’ minds wrapped around things like fuel mileage, cleaner emissions, and hybrid technology we find them moving further away from SUVs and trucks (Farooq, 2012). However, the 2013 Corolla is foreshadowed to be outshined by the Dodge Dart, as it loses some of its competitive edge in pricing and other award winning features (TrueTrends, 2012). By 2012 Toyota is planning to have more than 20 models that use batteries to extend fuel economy just like their Prius (Krolicki). Although they have not been as aggressive in the electric car market recently, like their competitors, they are planning to release a rechargeable version of their Prius by June 2012 (Krolicki). This re-chargeable version will position Toyota to attempt to take over as a low cost leader of hybrid technologies  within the market, which supports Toyota’s overall strategy of low cost (Krolicki). Two actions that other car companies may take in order to differentiate themselves and gain a competitive advantage  Hyundai rightly understood the consumer motivations to create magnetic products, price them strategically, position them sharply and keep making the magnetism more potent. Having understood the finer differences in consumer motivations, it opted for sharp arrow ‘reasons-to-buy’ differentiation over the ‘blanket-all approach’ taken by most of the other players. It is an aggressive marketer. It focuses on medium and low price products. Hyundai has also started premium products range to capture the growing market. (Anshuman goyal, pricing strategy of Hyundai, 2007; Retrieved December 9, 2014 from The segments are based on type of customer like age group, attitude, end use of product, demographic behavior and purchasing power, status of the people of the region. Each competitor has its own strong point and value and position there product so as to attract maximum number of customers. (Kottler, Keller, Jha, Koshy, 2007, Marketing Management) Hyundai brand continues to dominate the market for premium cars, despite increasing competition. The firm should first consider the competitors price. If the company i.e. Hyundai contains features not offered by the nearest competitor, it should evaluate their worth to the customer and that value to the competitor price. Competitors are more likely to react when there is high competition. In case of Hyundai, many products are there such as Sonata, Santro, Hyundai i10, Accent etc. Hyundai continues to provide stiff competition to Honda in all the segments and poses an even bigger threat to expansion plans of Hyundai. (Anshuman goyal, pricing strategy of Hyundai, 2007; Retrieved December 9, 2014 from Two examples of the most effective advertising medium for a Car company The TV advertising have been having the largest audiences in all ages, but car buyers are specific ages who have not enough time to watching TV even less than one hour per day, because they are too busy in today competitive era. Instead the internet via smart phones and computers is like a ghost became as a inseparable part of their life, at any time more than 15 hours a day, and even when they are eating, showering, walking, sporting, biking, swimming, and in any place even in high mountains and deep forests, roads and villages! Another reason for effectiveness of internet rather than TV is: new intelligence algorithms via data mining analyze the behavior of customers and put proper Ads to the web pages related to the target customers with very lower advertising costs. As a most important subject which advertisers should also pay attention to it is cultural differences, they have to be careful since cultures vary in different countries, they must understand the local audience culture before releasing new commercials, in order to avoid any misunderstanding. Another internet related way for advertising can be the online promotional games, such as Toyota’s use of MSN commercial games to promote its products, for instance. There are two interactive contents focusing on entertainment: fun activities and downloads. Both of them were found in about one third of the 100 web sites, respectively. Fun activities were also utilized to promote the brand in the sites and they are not related to scores or performance. Activities for fun included virtual test drive (, virtual plant tour (www.cocacola .com), virtual auto show (, e-cards (, a coloring sheet (, a virtual skin beauty analysis (, and so forth. Downloads promoting and affiliated with the company’s brand were also analyzed. Desktop images such as wallpaper and icons were the most offered downloads, followed by music (Seounmi Youn, 2001, Retrieved December 9, 2014 from =0&P=3326464&B=†¦_&T=text%2Fplain;%20charset=us-ascii) For the carmakers, another impressive promotion method is â€Å"complete test ride†. The buyers are very keen to getting experience to drive with a brand new car and having the opportunity to really feel its advantages and disadvantages. For encouraging the customers to more participating in test drive activities, offering some gifts can always increase the interest and  willingness of then. Getting the best result always does not correspond with the cost of the advertising. So carmakers should choose their advertising media in accordance with today era. However as always, inviting stars to speak for different models with different appeals will have so effectiveness to increasing the public awareness. Conclusion Some observers suspect that Hyundai’s recent successes may be anomalies, abetted by the difficulties that the company’s U.S. and Japanese competitors faced after the global economic crisis, the rise in the yen’s value, Toyota’s wave of recalls, and the 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan and Fukushima nuclear disaster. Others say that the company’s highly protected home market has enabled its growth, allowing Hyundai to establish a global presence while its domestic competitors restrict themselves to tiny slivers of the Korean market. But the single factor that has made the most difference is the company’s own interest in building world-class capabilities. Starting in 1998, Hyundai’s leaders set out to develop the kind of prowess the company would need to become a global automobile powerhouse, able to hold its own in the United States and other fiercely competitive markets. Early on, that meant offering a comprehensive warranty and taking specific steps to dramatically improve its quality ratings. Once customers were convinced of the brand’s reliability, Hyundai added other capabilities, such as design, which led to a more diversified product line and more stylish features. Meanwhile, it developed a knack for getting the word out through clever, consistent marketing. The result is a coherent mix of quality improvement, design, and marketing that gives Hyundai a clear advantage over its industry competitors. Although these are required capabilities at all automakers, Hyundai has excelled at combining them over the past decade, and its sales numbers reflect this success. The company’s effort to become a world-class automaker is beginning to pay off, and it’s far enough along that its story can be credibly told. (Source: Strategy & Business. February 26, 2013. Retrieved December 2, 2014  from References Anshuman goyal, pricing strategy of Hyundai, 2007; Anshuman goyal, pricing strategy of Hyundai, 2007; Carl Hose. 2014; Small businesses; Hans Greimel, 2011. /20101206/RETAIL03/ 312069982/hyundai-plans-new-brand-strategy Kottler, Keller, Jha, Koshy, 2007, Marketing Management Kristen Hamlin, 2014; importance-ad-slogans-31343.html http://www. Ross Gittell, 2014, Trefis Team, 2014. /greatspeculations/2014/06/13/tata-motors-looks-to-improve-passenger-car-sales-by-penetrating-the-compact-segment/ Seounmi Youn, 2001, =0&P=3326464&B=†¦_&T=text%2Fplain;%20charset=us-ascii Strategy & Business. February 26, 2013.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Write two paragraphs, each about 150 words, which present an extended Essay - 1

Write two paragraphs, each about 150 words, which present an extended definition of Jim Crow 1.0 and Jim Crow 2.0. AKA The New Jim Crow - Essay Example Under these laws, the public places or the public assets of the United States were segregated between the African Americans and the White Americans. These laws were created to promote equal treatment of the African Americans, but the public assets that were allowed to be accessed by the African Americans were quite inferior to the ones that were allocated to the White Americans. Jim Crow 2.0 is the word used to refer to a book called New Jim Crow that was authored by Michelle Alexander during the period of 2010. The book is called Jim Crow 2.0 in order to differentiate from the Jim Crow laws of 1890s which are referred to as Jim Crow 1.0. The book called Jim Crow 2.0 was authored with the purpose of informing the society that things have not changed in the American society and the African Americans are still treated almost the same way they were treated under the Jim Crow Laws. The book proposes that institutional discrimination still exists in the American society but it has taken a much subtle form. The book argues that previously laws were created to explicitly discriminate against the African Americans. Now there are no such laws, but the practices of these institutions is still the same. For example: the African American members of the American society are quite commonly labeled as criminals and due to this they have access to inferior quality of housi ng, employment opportunities and other opportunities as compared to the White Americans of the society (

Thursday, September 26, 2019

To what extent is employee motivation for departmental support staff Essay

To what extent is employee motivation for departmental support staff employed by a (UK) local authority affected by workplace organisational change - Essay Example Various reasons for organizational and management change have come to light through studies. Change in an organization can be due to downsizing, redundancy, change of management through mergers and acquisition, change due to expansion, and most important due to the advancements in technology. UK has experienced problems in all types of organization. While there may be certain factors common to all, there are certain unique characteristics specific to the department or the organization. According to Worrall, Campbell & Cooper (1999) redundancy is the redundancy is the most evocative and fear inducing form of organizational change for many workers. A survey on organizational change in UK revealed that within one year there was dynamism, persistence and an increased pace of change. There was a visible increase in the number of people affected by restructuring. They also found that larger firms employing more than 500 people were more at risk of being affected by restructuring. They established that there were differences in restructuring over industrial sectors, with the public sector experiencing the highest restructuring. The effects of redundancy were consequently different also. Brockner et al., 1986; Kozlowski et al., 1993 emphasize that emotions synonymous with grieving such as shock, anger, denial, guilt and fear. These lead to decreased motivation, decreased trust in management and decreased levels of organization commitment even in subsequent jobs (cited by Worrall et al.,). These emotions and attitudes even affect the behavior of survivors. It makes them indecisive, they are averse to taking risks, and the workers are not willing to go ‘that extra mile’ (Thornhill et al., 1997; Smith and Vickers, 1994, cited by Worrall et al.,). Individuals become loyal to their own development than the organization (Reilly et al., cited by Worrall). Robinson and Rousseau (1994) also agree that redundancy leads

Global health Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Global health - Assignment Example Secondly, the most vulnerable population should be protected and prioritized than the invulnerable ones. This includes the poor who have less access to medical facilities and have a difficulty in affording these services. Making these facilities available and affordable for them can be a huge step towards effective health care. Statement: The WHO report (2012) shows that over 6.6 million children under 5 years died in Africa, especially in third world countries. Increasing the medical care facilities for children can help reduce the death of the future generation. Statement: In 2008, CDC declared that the statistics of mortality at birth in Africa has gone high in developing countries and that there is need to reduce the risk of both the mother and the child of dying. The Pregnancy risk assessment program (PRAP) is an initiative that would see less annual mortality at birth. Statement: Mubi (2013) notes that Malaria claims about 0.66 million people among them children along the coastal regions of the world. This high rate of death costs the economy and should be avoided at all cost. Providing adequate medical supply within these areas would help improve the situation. Statement: Mudur (2003) notes that over 85% of India is covered by water and that this has resulted in the prevalence of waterborne diseases within this country. Hence, it is crucial to control the impact of diseases such as diarrhea and typhoid by increasing medical care in this environment. Statement: Research by Mabey and Mayaud (2004) indicates that developing countries spend over 13% of their economy budget on STD. As the number of reported cases increases every year, it would be vital to launch awareness campaigns to reduce the infection rate. Statement: In the near dry regions of the world, most communities cannot afford medical care and the death rate in these regions is very high. Providing free medical insurance will make health services free for them. Statement:

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

What subject should be mandatory for all children at school in Saudi Essay

What subject should be mandatory for all children at school in Saudi Arabia and explain why you think so - Essay Example ge as a school subject will enable the children to learn the some useful basic of Arabic language such as grammar, punctuation and sentence construction. For example, most Saudi children in Saudi Arabia can speak good Arabic but they cannot write at the same standards. Arabic language is used as the language of learning. Thus, other subjects learnt in school are taught in Arabic. This indicates that Arabic is vital for success of Arabic students. If children are not taught Arabic at the basic level of their education, they will have difficulties in higher levels of their education as they try to learn other complicated things. Making Arabic, a mandatory to all children in Saudi Arabia would enable all children to be at the same academic level when it comes to communication. This will enable teachers to teach other subjects to the children easily since they already have the basic Arabic requirements. For example, it would be difficult to teach science to children who do not have a good background in

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

The Global context of modern business Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

The Global context of modern business - Essay Example In today’s fast paced business environment Companies need to be fast growing, efficient, profitable, flexible, adaptable, and future-ready and have a dominant market position because in the absence of these qualities and characteristics companies cannot pose healthy competition in the modern global economy. Hence to successfully pursue their goals and also maximize profits, it’s crucial that they be in a position to obtain entree into new markets and come up with brand new ideas. Companies frequently opt to expand their business by means of Mergers & Acquisitions more willingly than engaging their labours on their personal business activities. This kind of growth and expansion is seen as a more rapid mode of accomplishing the primary purpose. (Krishnan 2009) Particularly in technology focused industries, where development is often boomed with the aid of amplified innovations, and companies can also stay in competition by being parallel to those which companies that are developing the innovative technology in the first place. This parallelism can be attained through both Merger as well as Acquisition. (Krishnan 2009) Today in the modern world companies can gain and sustain competitive advantage by being knowledgeable. The knowledgeable employees of an organization are its asset and are well treasured by it. (Krishnan 2009) Dimensions of the Business Environment: The business environment of a company is the macro and micro environment in which a company operates but it doesn’t have a direct control over it. It influences the company`s activities and performance in various ways, proving to be positive or negative at different stages in time. (Agrawala 2009) The macro environment is the general environment of the country in which the company is operating and it affects all companies in the economy. The next environment affecting the company is the industry and this comprises of the industrial conditions in which the company is operating in step to its competitors. Next is the microenvironment which deals with its specific markets and to other organizations that contribute to its production and distribution activities. It may also include other businesses manufacturing and marketing complimentary goods and services. (Agrawala 2009) Business Opportunities in Pakistan Since 1990 when Pakistan was on the threshold of bankruptcy, it has shown a remarkable political and economical development and has overcome the negativity in the minds of the international marketers. Pakistan is one of the most prominent countries of the Islamic world with an ever increasing population of approximately 150 million; hence it is well renowned by the international community. Considering the geographical location of Pakistan, it has close political and economic relations with the Middle East, Central and South Asia as it is the main entryway to Central Asia and supplier to the Emirates. Pakistan is a member of the South Asian Association for Regio nal Co-operation (SAARC) and lately noteworthy steps have been taken by SAARC, to create a South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) which will also include India. (Guitard, Khan & Bienen, p 2, no date) Since 9/11 Pakistan has received sizeable economic support from its key creditors and this has made significant room for fast export growth, a positive balance of payments, reduction of the cost of debt service, a dramatic increase in the country’s currency reserves and an all time low for domestic interest rates. Due to the reduced cost of debt as well

Monday, September 23, 2019

To what extent is the documentary film 'sisters in law' a reliable Essay

To what extent is the documentary film 'sisters in law' a reliable source to account for the situation of women's rights in Came - Essay Example Issues in Cameroon In this section, the issues faced by women in Cameroon have been listed down and discussed as shown in the documentary. The reliability of the documentary is also analysed with the help of some independent sources. Child Marriage The documentary shows that women are usually married off at a very young age in the country (Ayisi & Longinotto, 2005). Due to early marriage, they are unable to complete their education. An early marriage also gives rise to early pregnancies which is risky both for the mother as well as the child. This problem is corroborated by the statistics presented by UNICEF. According to UNICEF 36% of women were married before the age of 18 in 2010. Thus, the problem of Child marriage is really a big issue in Cameroon and has been captured well by the documentary (UNICEF, 2010). Selling off Daughters In the beginning of the documentary we have seen a case in which the women were ‘sold’ of as wife by the father in return for dowry. This is a very big problem in many Islamic societies. Women are considered as merchandise by the family which can be sold for the right amount (Ayisi & Longinotto, 2005). Although the documentary has failed to take into account the issue that majority of Cameroon residents are not Muslims but the issue is still worth discussing as it affects one-third of Cameroon’s population. The documentary presents this issue in a good way but fails to tell us about the extent to which this issue plagues the society. Custody of Children The Islamic law says that if there is divorcee or if the wife runs away, the custody of the children stays with the father. This is in sharp contrast with the modern law which regards the mother as the most natural custodian of the child. Although Cameroon has modern system of law in place but the society still follows age old tradition and a woman has to fight in order to get custody of her children (Ayisi & Longinotto, 2005).Once again the documentary focused on the Islamic population of Cameroon and fails to give an insight into the practices followed by other people of Cameroon. Physical abuse Physical Abuse is another big problem which is faced by women in Cameroon. This abuse is not only inflicted on older women but even children are not spared from it. It is common for the husband to regularly beat up his wife over small things. Children are beaten up mercilessly by their guardians over small faults (Ayisi & Longinotto, 2005).Report of UNICEF in 2010 also supports the issue shown in the documentary. It shows that 56% of population of Cameroon justifies wife beating and a very high 93% has justified the beating of children (UNICEF, 2010).Thus the issue shown in the documentary also finds resonance with UNICEF and shows that the issue has been shown reliably and correctly. Social Boycott Cameroon is a traditional society where matters of the house are not taken outside. The elders of the house or of the village gather together in orde r to solve the issue .It is taboo for women to drag her husband to the court even if she has been suffering a lot. Once a woman decides to break free of

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Florida Shrimp Industry Analysis Essay Example for Free

Florida Shrimp Industry Analysis Essay What if it were logical and profitable to merge two of the fastest growing shrimp industries in the United States today? That is exactly the idea behind â€Å"bait shrimp production†, the latest development in the combined evolution of the valuable live bait shrimp industry and the continual growth arena of aquaculture. Farm-raised bait shrimp is a very appropriate combination of the two businesses; both have a historical development in Florida for over forty years. Florida has been proclaimed the â€Å"Fishing Capital of the World† with its 1,197 statute miles of coastline hosting 3. 4 million anglers annually. The statistics regarding the recreational fishing industry in Florida are astounding. The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) reports: †¢The economic value of recreational fishing to Florida is $7.0 billion and supports 75,000 jobs. †¢Recreational fishing is the second largest sports industry in Florida with over 700 world-record fish caught. Live bait shrimp is the nucleus around which evolves Florida’s saltwater sport and recreational fishing. It is the preferred bait for fishing near shore species such as snook, sea trout, redfish, snapper, cobia and mackerel. The business of catching and supplying live bait shrimp began with a few individuals supplying themselves, and a few bait shops in the 1950’s to becoming a multi-million dollar industry with exports throughout the Southeast United States. This growth is a testimony to the pre-eminence of shrimp as the most popular live bait among saltwater anglers in Southeast United States. The message is clear the recreational/sport fishing industry and live bait shrimp are well established in Florida. And their popularity is growing amongst the14 million people (75% living within 10 miles of the coast) and the 40 million tourists who visit each year. Commercial fishermen currently supplying 100% of the bait shrimp market experiences regulatory restrictions, seasonal declines in wild stocks, and unreliable labor causing unpredictable shortages and as such are unable to meet the increase in the market demands. The FWC and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer service reports: †¢As the tourist and recreational fishing industry continues to increase in Florida so will the bait shrimp business. †¢Fishermen love to use live bait shrimp and retailers are always running out of bait before they run out of customers. †¢The retailer wants consistent deliveries of bait shrimp in numbers that will keep the customers walking through the door of their shop †¢Although the fishing effort has increased 50% over the past ten years, the live bait harvesters cannot meet the market demands. This increase in demand without an increase in supplies has resulted in an extremely high dollar value of live bait. This increase in demand, low supply and high dollar value has attracted the attention of shrimp producers. Now for the other half of the combination shrimp aquaculture. As the demand for live bait shrimp has expanded without an increase in supplies, the inevitable has begun to take place culturing Florida’s endemic penaeids for bait size shrimp using hatchery and production technologies developed for other economically important penaeids. Wholesale distributors cannot get adequate supply of bait shrimp certain times; retailers are forced to accept inaccurate counts and variable sizes of wild bait, which they will loose almost 30% in mortalities during the course of the day. Retailers cannot consistently provide the customer with the desired size and often sell â€Å"mixes†. Fishermen are reliant on the seasonal migration, molting periods and life cycles of the natural population; as such they cannot guarantee quality or volume. Shrimp spawn in April/May releasing eggs that move with the tides and currents into estuaries, where they spend their postlarval and juvenile stages before migrating back to deeper waters. Bait size shrimp are virtually impossible to harvest in June, July, and August due to this natural life cycle; and are in short supply September through December. It is the winter months January through April that suppliers, wholesalers and retailers can experience marketable size bait shrimp. However, even during this time period, harvesting of small animals causes immediate stress and holding them in â€Å"live† haul tanks for long distance deliveries results in high mortalities. Enter the growth industry, Aquaculture, dedicated to providing consumers what they need – healthy, quality seafood and aquatic products at market prices. The inability of the fishermen to provide year round live bait shrimp, there is a significant gap supplies. From this lack of product will grow the combination of live bait shrimp and aquaculture— Live Bait, Inc. Live Bait, Inc. will produce bait shrimp is at high densities in enclosed facilities equipped with multi-phase, recirculating systems. Bait size shrimp will be cultured to three variable sizes, (8,10, and 12 grams) to provide the retailer with desired â€Å"mixes†. Bait shrimp production facilities, unlike shrimp boats, can be located through out Florida in high value areas that support a large volume of recreational fishing and tourism. Live Bait, Inc. will focus on providing existing market channels with high quality bait at market prices, in a consistent and reliable manner through out the year. The first bait shrimp production facility is said to have been an offshoot of a Texas AM project developing production systems for Gulf of Mexico endemic shrimp. The species of choice for this area are brown shrimp (F. aztecus) and it is believed that the company, although small scale, Lone Star Fishery, is experiencing continued success. There is a tremendous interest amongst fishermen and wholesale dealers in developing culture systems for bait shrimp. However, once they realize the capital investment and risk involved, they become interested in buying from Live Bait, Inc. The market for live bait shrimp is continuing to grow, especially during the summer when local residents and tourists target inshore species. This year-round demand, unreliable supplies and high dollar value ensures a continued market for this commodity. Industry Participants There are several groups of industry participants, which must come together in order for Live Bait, Inc. to function well. 1.Wholesale Dealers. Everything begins and ends with this customer. Wholesale distributors have established marketing channels and will be buying directly from the production centers. Each production center must first identify the base of the wholesaler from which the high volume, high value business will be drawn. Their attitudes, needs and abilities must be the genesis of each decision in designing the size and location of production facilities. 2.The Nuclear Breeding Center. For long-term sustainable production and the Florida Department of Aquaculture’s support and sanctions; it is imperative that a breeding program for F. duorarum be established from the beginning. Experience has proven the necessity of SPF stocks in minimizing the incidents of diseases and animal stress from high density, mass production. 3.. For Live Bait, Inc to produce, cost-effective, quality bait shrimp it needs outstanding seedstock. Large numbers of seedstock at affordable prices will needed, on a weekly basis in order to maintain the sequential stocking required by multi-phase systems. 4.Management/Production Team. This is the triangulation point where it all comes together. The team must identify the best locations; design the most cost effective facilities and production systems, produce shrimp using state-of-the-science technologies to provide high quality bait shrimp available for daily pickup. Who are the individuals or groups that are likely customers of farm raised live bait shrimp? Fortunately, there are some marketing surveys that have been conducted Florida state agencies, the US Department of Commerce and Mariculture, Inc. that can provide some answers even in this new concept. The target market for Live Bait, Inc. is the wholesale dealer/distributor, who currently is supplied 100% by the bait shrimp fishery. Currently, wholesale dealers either buy dockside from shrimpers and/or they use their own boats. As such they are located within close proximities of bait shrimping boats and not necessarily in the high value tourist areas. Each GLB’s locations will develop its facility, production numbers, sizes and services around the target audience –wholesalers. GLB will target several distinct groups: 1.Wholesalers, which fit the basic demographic characteristics of supplying retailers from great distances. These will be wholesalers who either buy dockside from shrimpers and/or they use their own boats. As such they are located within close proximities of bait shrimping boats, which are in five major regions: Hernando (Citrus, Hernando, Pasco, Pinellas and Manatee) with 47% of total bait shrimp landings; Pine Island (Lee County) with 33% of total bait shrimp landings, Biscayne Bay (Dade and Monroe Counties) with 18% of total bait shrimp landings and Jacksonville (Fernandina Beach) with 2% total bait shrimp landings. Wholesalers will truck live bait shrimp 220 miles from Homosassa to Naples or from Miami, which is 107 miles. Wholesalers from these regions supplying the North-Central East Coast, the Keys and Panhandle will be targeted. 2.Wholesalers who supply retailers dealing in large volumes. For example marinas that sell 275,000 – 300,000 or more bait per day during the winter months and 65,000 – 80,000 per day during the summer months. Volume in these areas severely restricted due short supplies and distance from suppliers. Retailers claim they could sell up to 300% more, if the supply were available. Wholesalers supplying large marinas, high-end fishing piers located in metropolitan areas, and retail bait/tackle stores that promote popular sport fishing tournaments will be targeted. 3.Wholesalers who supply high dollar bait to retailers located in areas support high value recreational/sport fishing and tourism. Wholesale prices for live bait vary considerably with location. For example prices in Pine Island will run $30/1,000 shrimp while in Marco Island and Naples, which is just south of Pine Island, will have prices up to $70/1,000. Wholesalers who supply retailers who are willing to pay the higher market price will be targeted. 4. Wholesalers who are receptive of farm-raised bait and will promote the product among retailers. Currently, an overwhelming majority of retailers accept the idea of farm-raised bait. Most are willing to pay between 50-100% above current prices for farm raised bait as long as the supply is consistent and reliable. Wholesalers who are willing to promote our product, pay premium prices for premium farm raised bait shrimp will be targeted. 5.Wholesalers who are either currently exporting to neighboring states, or who would like to export to other states. Florida Bait shrimp wholesalers export live bait nine months out of the year to different neighboring states. Currently they supply 60% of the Alabama Market, 20% of the South Carolina and 50% of the Georgia market. Wholesalers exporting to other states will be targeted. 6.Bait Brokers dealing in frozen bait are currently importing small frozen shrimp that are severely damaged from outside the United States. The shrimp exotic species, which may or may not be infected with viral diseases. These brokers currently cannot meet the needs of their large contracts such as those with Wal-Mart and Publix. Process them, as most of the brokers also have processing plants. 7.Wholesalers who are supplying retailers whose customers would prefer farm raised bait over wild bait for ecological and environmental reasons. These six primary target groups provide fertile ground for GLB to become a profitable operation within the first year of production. In fact, GLB will become the top producer of farm-raised bait for Florida and the entire southeast coastal corridors. Live Bait, Inc. production centers will be established in key locations through out Florida. The marinas, retail bait shops, bait and tackle shops within a thirty-mile radius will match the demographic target profile – high volume, high market price, pro-farm raised bait, easy assess to interstate highways and are being supplied by wholesalers from great distances. A marketing survey conducted by the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Service’s, Bureau of Seafood and Aquaculture Marketing has documented annual landings (harvests), volumes of bait sold by retailers, wholesale/retail prices, peak seasonal demands and months of supply shortages. Major harvesting areas are divided Hernando Regions (Citrus, Hernando, Pasco, Pinellas and Manatee) with 47% of total bait shrimp landings; Pine Island (Lee County) with 33% of total bait shrimp landings, Biscayne Bay (Dade and Monroe Counties) with 18% of total bait shrimp landings and Jacksonville (Fernandina Beach) with 2% total bait shrimp landings. Annual Landings report to Florida’s Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission by licensed bait shrimpers in 2000 was 2.46 million pounds (246 million bait size shrimp using a 100/1b count). This is 50% above the reported landings for 1991 of 1.23 million pounds 123 million bait size shrimp using a 100/lb count). Fishery managers feel the harvest numbers are under-reported on trip tickets. And since live bait shrimp is a cash industry sales are not accurately reported. Also not all shrimp caught as live bait is sold as live bait, there are high mortality rates associated with harvesting, holding and transporting. Larger shrimp will often be culled and sold as food. It is likely that the farm production needed to supply current markets will have to be 50% above reported landings to approximately 3.69 million pounds (369 million bait size shrimp using a 100/lb count).

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Should Apes Have Human Rights?

Should Apes Have Human Rights? Should apes have human rights based on sign language? In todays society apes are considered to be animals and are given no rights even considerably close to humans, in fact, they have no rights to begin with. But rarely is the question asked, should apes have rights based on sign language and other communication skills? Absolutely not. Rights are a human concept, based on the idea of individuals, who, acting independently or having the freedom to do so should be treated equally by law. Animals dont act independent nor have the freedom to do so. They cannot take responsibility for their own actions, and they cannot like humans give enough effort to provide for or influence a society alone. In fact, they do not have a very well put together social group. Therefore, it makes no sense to give animals human rights just because they understand some parts of a human language and some sign language. But what about the questions of whether animals should have any special protection, such as protection from harm from owners or caretakers as they call them, or should they be kept from cages and set free in their natural habitat? Monkeys live together in social groups. All members contribute by helping to conserve, find, and defend food sources, raise their offspring, etc, just as people in a society do. But it isnt possible to live in a social group without some way or form of communication. Members of a social group need ways to influence and inform each other. This is what influences language. Monkeys have evolved many ways of communicating, including visual looks, auditory calls, etc. Some of their visual signals are very intriguing, like the long, curled tongue of the tamarin monkey, that signals to her mate when she wants to birth her babies. But visual signals only work if they can be seen. In the forest that most gorillas and apes live in, auditory and visual calls are a muc h more useful and powerful tool. Calls and vocalizations can also be changed through pitch, loudness, and duration, which means a vast list of messages can be transmitted through one ape to another. Alarm calls, territorial calls, food calls, personal identification calls, dominance calls, etc. these are the basic communication skills that animals need to successfully live in groups rather than be living on their own. But some developed more complex and specialized forms of auditory communication. Researchers and Specialists have spent years trying to learn how apes communicate and find out if they are able to learn human signals and language. In September of 1965 in West Africa the chimpanzee Washoe was born, and was one of the first apes to learn sign language as part of a research experiment on animal language acquisition. In the apes time on Earth, she learned exactly three hundred and fifty signs of communication. One day, one of Washoes caretakers who was pregnant missed work for a few months after she had an unfortunate miscarriage. Roger Fouts reviews the following situationPeople who should be there for her and arent are often given the cold shoulderher way of informing them that shes miffed at them. Washoe greeted Kat [Washoes caretaker] in just this way when she finally returned to work with the chimps. Kat made her apologies to Washoe, then decided to tell her the truth, signing MY BABY DIED. Washoe stared at her, then looked down. She finally peered into Kats eyes again and carefully signed CRY, touching her cheek and drawing her finger down the path a tear would make on a human (Chimpanzees dont shed tears). Also, when shown an image of herself, Washoe was asked what she saw and she signaled back Me, Washoe. This shows that apes are definitely capable of self-awareness. Another ape named Koko (born July 4, 1971) is a female gorilla born in the San Francisco Zoo known for learning a huge amount of signs, of a language that his caregiver Patterson calls gorilla sign language, or GSL. Kokos training began at the age of one, where she was exposed to human language, and by the time of her death, she understood over two thousand English words Koko is one of the few nonhuman animals that had pets. One year for Christmas Koko asked for a pet cat in 1983 so they gave her a lifelike toy cat, but Koko signed sad many times. So on her birthday in July 1984, she was able to choose a cat from a litter of abandoned kittens. Koko selected a gray cat and named him All Ball. According to Penny Patterson, Kokos owner, Koko cared for the kitten as if it was a baby gorilla, being very gentile and loving. Sadly, in December of 1984, All Ball escaped from Kokos cage, and was hit by a car. Later, Patterson said that when she signaled to Koko that All Ball had died, and Kok o signed Bad, sad, bad and Frown, cry, frown, sad. Recently, to celebrate her birthday in July 2015, Koko was presented another litter of kittens, Picking two of them, she named one Miss Black and one Miss Grey. These examples show that apes to can feel, and If we abuse apes, it goes against our human nature, because we know animals can feel pain and emotion to, and theres no good reasoning that this cant be law, yet not part of human rights. My argument is that we should always value the interest of humans over and above those of animals, which is why researching all animals- which can further medical advance and human knowledge is morally the best thing to do. Animal research could help to decide how smart monkeys really are, and how we should treat their kind as a whole. Based on Steven Wises research, it appears that animals such as apes possess certain cognitive abilities such as communication skills, attention, memory, judgement, problem solving, decision making, comprehension, etc., that make them smart enough to be free rather than in a cage at a zoo handled by humans to provide entertainment and big business. Steven Wise once said, For four thousand years, a thick and impenetrable legal wall has separated all human from all nonhuman animals. On one side, even the most trivial interests of a single species ours are jealously guarded. We have assigned ourselves, alone among the million animal species, the status of legal persons. On the other side of that wall lies the legal refuse of an entire kingdom, not just chimpanzees and bonobos but also gorillas, orangutans, and monkeys, dogs, elephants, and dolphins. They are legal things. Their most basic and fundamental interests their pains, their lives, their freedoms are intentionally ignored, often maliciously trampled, and routinely abused. Ancient philosophers claimed that all nonhuman animals had been designed and placed on this earth just for human beings. Ancient jurists declared that law had been created just for human beings. Although philosophy and science have long since recanted, the law has not. In conclusion, apes shouldnt have human rights, but they should be free and have rights of their own kind, made for their own kind, which should be bound by law, because they show several cases of self-awareness, communication skills, knowledge, attention, working memory, judgment, reasoning, problem solving and decision making, comprehension and production of language, etc. Several apes have shown these skills and though they may not be as smart as humans, they are smart enough and capable enough of living in their own society where they should be able to roam free instead of being shown off in a zoo or being sold as product Works Cited Barlow, Rich Something. Should Chimps Have the Rights of People? Bostonia. Rich Barlow, 19 Sept. 2013. Web. 07 Feb. 2017. OstlerKCL, Sophia. Should Monkeys Be Granted Human Rights? The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group, n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2017. Should Animals Have The Same Rights As People? Popular Science. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2017. Spearmint: Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory and Antipyretic Spearmint: Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory and Antipyretic Review: Yousuf, P. (2013). Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory and Antipyretic Effect of Mentha spicata (Spearmint). British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research,3(4), 854-864. doi:10.9734/bjpr/2013/4640 Mentha spicata (Spearmint) is often used as an alternative treatment for inflammation, fever, and pain relief.   All of these problems can present symptoms such as cramps, headache, joint stiffness, and general aches and pains.   Inflammation, pain and fever can all be treated with over the counter drugs such as ibuprofen and acetaminophen, but these drugs can often have severe side effects if used long term.   Many essential oils have been used in aromatherapy and proven to be effective in treating pain relief, inflammation and fever.   The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effect of Mentha spicata (spearmint). The test subjects for this study were young Swiss-Albino mice about 4-5 weeks in age with an average weight of 25-30 gm and adult Albino rats with an average weight of 100-130 gm.   The study was conducted at the animal house of the Department of Pharmacy, North Sough University, Bangladesh.   Subjects were kept for one week in standard housing at 25 degrees Celsius in order to adapt before testing proceeded.   Animals were also given standard food and water. Separate tests and methods were given for each of the items being looked at: anti-inflammation, fever and pain.   For the evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect, the method used was carrageenan induced rat paw edema.   This method induces acute swelling when a solution of carrageenan in saline is injected into the hind footpad of the subjects.   The rats were randomly divided into four groups, each with five animals.   Group I was the control group, and only given distilled water.   Group II was given Ketorolac (10mg/kg) as standard, and Groups III and IV were given the test sample at a dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight respectively.   Thirty minutes after the oral administration of the test materials, 1% carrageenan was injected into the left hind paw of each animal.   The amount of paw edema was measured at  ½, 1, 2, 3, and 6 hours after administration.   For the evaluation of antipyretic (fever) activity, Brewers yeast-induced pyrexia was used.   Wister alb ino rats were selected, weighed and divided into three groups of five animals each.   All the test subjects were fasted 18 hours prior to experiment, but water was given.   Fever was induced by injecting 20 ml/kg of 20% aqueous suspension of Brewers yeast in saline below the nape of the neck.   Rectal temperature was taken immediately before and 18 hours after injection.   Prior to the experiment, the rats were maintained in separate cages for 7 days and the animals with approximately constant rectal temperature were selected for the study. Paracetamol (100 mg/kg) was used as standard drug for comparing the antipyretic action of extract. The extract at the doses of 500 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally, one group was administered with paracetamol (100 mg/kg) control group was given 0.5 ml normal saline. The rectal temperature was measured at 1, 2 and 3 h after drug administration by using digital thermometer. Percentage reduction in rectal temperature was calculated b y considering the total fall in temperature to normal level.   Two methods of evaluation were used to test the analgesic effects.   The first was a hot plate test.   The temperature was regulated at 55 °  ± 1 °C. Mice were divided into four groups consisting of five animals in each group. The mice of each group were placed in the beaker (on the hot plate) in order to obtain its response to electrical heat induced pain. Licking of the paws or jumping out of the beaker was taken as an indicator of the animals response to heat-induced pain. The time for each mouse to lick its paws or jump out of the beaker was taken as reaction time (in seconds). Before treatment, the reaction time was taken once. Each of the test mice was treated with either distilled water (DW), Ketorolac (2.5 mg/kg of body weight) or methanol extract of Mentha spicata at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight orally. Thirty minutes after treatment, the reaction time of each group of mice were again e valuated five times individually in one hour intervals.   The second test administered was acetic acid induced writhing test.   Writhing test is a chemical method used to induce pain by injecting acetic acid into the mice.   The acetic acid was injected into the body cavity to create the pain sensation.   Ketorolac (10 mg/kg) was used as a standard. The plant extract was administered orally in two different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) to the Swiss Albino mice after an overnight fast. Test samples and vehicle were administered orally 30 minutes prior to intraperitoneal administration of 0.7% v/v acetic acid solution at 10 ml/kg body weight. Animals were kept individually under glass jar for observation. Each mouse of all groups were observed individually for counting the number of writhing they made in 5minutes beginning 5 minutes after the injection.   The number of writhes in each treated group was compared to that of a control group (Distilled water). The hot plate test produced significant analgesic effect when using the methanol extract of Mentha spicata.   The extract significantly increased the reaction time of the mice when exposed to the heat.   The writhing test showed significant analgesic results as well and was comparable to that of the standard (66.66%).   The Brewers yeast proved positive effects of fever, and the carrageenan-induced paw edema proved that Mentha spicata is effective in treating inflammation. The authors conclude that Mentha spicata proves to show significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties.   They state that further investigation is necessary to find the active component of the extract in order to confirm the action in the development of a potent analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic agent. This study is lacking in the amount of mice tested.   I would like to see a more wide range of subjects tested as well.   Although the number of mice tested is limited, the study is still of interest. First, all the results were in favor of the testing purposes.   This is interesting because it means that the medicinal properties are probably correct and would therefore be a good alternative to treating such ailments. And second, most people will at some point or another in their life suffer from pain, inflammation or fever.  Ã‚   This treatment would be a good alternative to medications that can have potential bad side effects and therefore reducing additional ailments and complications that need to be treated.   References Yousuf, P. (2013). Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory and Antipyretic Effect of Mentha spicata (Spearmint). British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research,3(4), 854-864. doi:10.9734/bjpr/2013/4640

Friday, September 20, 2019

Mental Health of Canadian Indigenous People

Mental Health of Canadian Indigenous People Author: Sarah E. Nelson, Kathi Wilson Journal: Social Science and Medicine (2017) This article focuses on the literature in relation to mental health of the indigenous people in Canada. Indigenous people contribute to 370 million of the worlds population spread over more than 70 different countries (WHO, 2007) and are known by different names all across the globe. It is strongly believed by many scholars that an unequal burden of mental illness is being carried by the indigenous people all around the world. According to a number of studies it has been seen that colonialism and the process associated with it play an important role in determining the health of indigenous population internationally. This study was carried out since not much research has been done on the mental health of indigenous people in Canada. Something that connects the indigenous people all around the world is the experience of colonialism even though the experience and the history differ greatly in various location and indigenous population. Health issues such as infant mortality, high incidences of acute or chronic pain, and injury have been associated by the international literature with social inequalities like poverty and racism emerging from colonialism. It has been indicated by research around the world that we should be careful when concluding about the occurrence of mental illness without taking into account the colonial process. Studies related to the mental illness of indigenous people in Canada like elsewhere is being taken up by settlers who follow colonial and non indigenous concepts and epistemologies. They also raised concern about the fixity of colonialism in health care system, which creates a problem for the indigenous people who need health care services especially for mental illness. The aim of this study was to identify the extent of research on mental health of indigenous people in Canada, find out the gaps which may exists in the studies whichÂÂ   have been done, and determine the extent to which mental health research is representative of indigenous populations and geographies in Canada. This study was carried out in 5 stages. First, the research question was identified followed by finding out studies relevant to it, selecting them, collecting the data, and combining and summarizing the results. Studies were collected from 11 data bases and 2 indigenous- specific journals. The articles were grouped under social determinants of mental health, mental health services, prevalence of specific type of mental illness, mental health promotion, mental health research and the impact and effect of colonialism on mental health of indigenous people. Out of the 223 selected articles, majority of them emphasized on the different sides of colonialism as a factor of mental illness which exhibited the colonial plan in policy decision. This study does not include the grey literature. Excluding such literature might led to overlooking at important strategies which may be practiced by various organizations. However the authors of this article believe that the 223 articles reviewed in this study give a gist of the research being carried out on indigenous people in Canada. Colonialism is a major issue addressed in this study in relation to mental health research. The term colonialism is used to indicate the effect of colonialism rather than the structure itself. This can lead to misinterpretation of the term and cause a narrowed understanding. Interactions with different aspects of colonialism by the indigenous people vary and it is important to maintain this diversity and deal with it accordingly even though they all share the common effect of colonialism. There are only a few interventions which are culturally accepted. It is therefore very important to look deeply into the interventions and mental health programs wh ich are beneficial and accepted by the indigenous community. When seeking help for mental treatment they feel stigmatized and when is it accompanied by racial discrimination and experiences of colonialism, it becomes even more difficult for the indigenous people to get them self treated. It is important to evaluate which programs and mental health practices are favorable for various indigenous groups. This article has immensely broadened my view and knowledge about the mental health of indigenous people not only in Canada but all over the world. The huge effect of colonialism is not restricted to an individual but passes on from generation to generation. Culture plays a very important role in maintaining the health equity in different populations. The side effects of colonialism can be minimized by analyzing it as a cultural problem rather than a political, social or economic affair. Even in the 21st century it is sad to know that the indigenous remain extremely aloof from the mainstream society even though they are the origins of their respective place. Article 2 Author: Luke Allen, Julianne Williams, Nick Townsend, Bente Mikkelsen, Nia Roberts, Charlie Foster, Kremlin Wickramasinghe. Title: Socioeconomic status and non-communicable disease behavioural risk factors in low-income and lower-middle-income countries: a systematic review Journal: The Lancet Global Health (2017) This article focuses on the socioeconomic status and non-communicable disease behavioural risk factors in low-income and lower-middle-income countries (LLMICs) which comprises of 39 countries. One of the objectives of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is to reduce the premature deaths caused due to non-communicable diseases (NCD) by a third by 2030. The mortality rate due to NCD is reducing by 1.8% in Brazil per year because of the spread and extension of primary health care. Thus it can be seen that the premature deaths due to NCD can be reduced to a significant amount by implementing government policies which focus on reducing behavioural risk factors. (WHO, 2007) 70% of the global deaths occur because of NCD. The relation between socioeconomic status and non communicable diseases is well understood in the high income countries but how behavioural risk factors are spread among the low-middle- income countries remains uncovered. This article aims to review systematically the relation between the socioeconomic status and harmful use of alcohol, tobacco, unhealthy diets and physically inactivity in LLMICs. For this study, 13 databases were looked into. The studies that were included were from LLMICs showing data on various measures of socioeconomic status and use of tobacco, alcohol, diet, and physical activity. The exclusion criteria included studies that restricted equating between more or less advantaged groups. Age or language was not the criteria for exclusion of a study. A narrative way for data synthesis was used due to high heterogeneity. 4242 records were reviewed out of which 75 met the assigned criteria which comprised of 2135314 individuals, who were older than 10 years of age. This study was carried out in accordance with PRISMA and Cochrane guidance. Studies included in this review were of moderate to high quality having a cross-sectional and survey based approach. After systematically reviewing the records, it was found that the low socioeconomic groups had a higher prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use and low intake of healthy diet when compared with the high income gr oup. On the other hand, less physical activity and more consumption of processed foods were seen in people form high socioeconomic group. The socioeconomic indicators that were used were income, wealth or assets, state defined poverty, literacy, education, occupational status and class, caste, job seniority, and researcher defined socioeconomic status. This was the first systematic review conducted within LLMICs which analyzed the socioeconomic distribution of all 4 major behavioural risk factors. Using this broad range of socioeconomic factors enabled the researchers to find a significant difference between casts, classes, sexes, occupational groups, and educational strata. Looking at the dietary findings, there was a direct relation seen between the socioeconomic status and intake of healthy diet. Low socioeconomic status group consumed more amount of processed food in high income setting and the opposite was seen in the LLMICs. Coming to physically activity, it was seen that rural low socioeconomic groups work in jobs which require more physical activity in LLMICs. In cities, this relation in reversed. As the study is heterogeneous, it needs careful interpretation and the findings cannot be seen as absolute. Because of the huge data collected it was difficult to reach to the depth of each risk factor. More than half of the countries classified as LLMICSs were not seen in their search results and this was a major finding as well as a weakness. Half of the studies were in relation to India which proves to be high quality evidence but these results cannot be generalized to all the LLMICs. Hence it is necessary to conduct more research to find out if the results found in this study are true even where close observation does not take place. Strategies which are implemented by the policy makers and national development agencies in areas where the premature deaths occurring due to NCD is more, should be evaluated to check if they are appropriate to their setting and should implement their plan accordingly. The government can play an important role by improving the rate of literacy, standa rd of living, income along with the heath conditions as it is clearly seen that the low socioeconomic conditions are related to non communicable risk factors. Even though data is not available for all the LLMICs, appropriate and immediate action should be takes for countries where data is available. References: Nelson, S. E., Wilson, K. (2017). The mental health of Indigenous peoples in Canada: A critical review of research. Social Science Medicine. World Health Organization. (October 2007). Media centre: health of indigenous peoples. Retrieved from Allen, L., Williams, J., Townsend, N., Mikkelsen, B., Roberts, N., Foster, C., Wickramasinghe, K. (2017). Socioeconomic status and non-communicable disease behavioural risk factors in low-income and lower-middle-income countries: a systematic review. The Lancet Global Health, 5(3), e277-e289. World Health Organization.( 2017).media centre: non communicable diseases prematurely take 16 million lives annually, WHO urges more action. Retrieved from