Thursday, October 31, 2019

Sir Richard Branson, Chairman, Virgin Group, Ltd Case Study

Sir Richard Branson, Chairman, Virgin Group, Ltd - Case Study Example In the business circles, the talk is there may be not many business sectors, in which Virgin has not made his mark. â€Å"Conceived in 1970 by Sir Richard Branson, the Virgin Group has gone on to grow successful businesses in sectors ranging from mobile telephony, travel, financial services, leisure, music, holidays and health & wellness.† (Virgin, n. d.). Among other factors, this optimal growth is primarily due to the leadership of Richard Branson, particularly the combination of transformational as well as authentic style of leadership. Under these style, leaders will provide the employees under them maximum autonomy to plan as well as implement the various organizational processes. (Avolio and Yammarino, 2002). By adopting decentralization structure or even democratic form of management, these authentic as well as transformational leaders will productively involve employees in all stages of organizational management, giving them optimum responsibilities. This form of leade rship was prominently visible in Branson, when he launched those 400 odd companies. When an idea for a business arises in his mind or comes from others, Branson starts that enterprise by maintaining a controlling interest in it, and then will manage it in the initial phase. After the company starts to function in a steady manner, he will delegate leadership roles to the second rung leaders and will move on. This process of delegation and productively involving the employees was pointed out by Branson himself. He stated, â€Å"I come up with the original idea, spend the first three months immersed in the business so I know the ins and outs and then give chief executives a stake in the company and ask them to run it as if it’s their own,† (Sukhiy, 2007). This combination of authentic and transformational leadership styles can be aptly applied in United States, because with most of the prospective employees coming out of the current effective academic environment exhibiti ng entrepreneurial skills as well as willingness to take responsibilities, this style can be aptly applied business leaders in U.S. In addition, as these leadership styles can elevate the motivation levels of the employees and bring out their best, it can be adopted. Thus, if these leadership styles are followed in U.S., organizations there can diversify or expand their operations optimally, as the leaders can initiate new processes and just oversee them, by giving maximum responsibilities to their employees, who will take it to the logical and positive end. 2. Recommending a different leadership style that would make Branson an even more effective leader. Although from the above discussion of Branson’s leadership traits it is clear that he has maximally exhibited effective traits, there are room for improvement in some of his traits. One of the optimal traits of Branson is having a great vision. Because of such a vision, Branson takes high number of risks, when it comes to l aunching new companies or products or services. That is, without fully analyzing the product’s feasibility and success, Branson has impulsively launched many products or services, and sizable of them have ended in failures. Some of the examples, Virgin Cola, launched as a competitor to Coca-Cola,

Monday, October 28, 2019

Outline for Treatment Approaches Essay Example for Free

Outline for Treatment Approaches Essay There are types of approaches to help an individual with recovering from drug and substance abuse. The approaches that are being looked at to help someone recover is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET), Medication Management, Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA), and Community Reinforcement and Family Training Approach (CRAFT). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Cognitive behavioral; therapy (CBT) was developed as an aide to prevent relapse when treating addiction. CBT is based on the principle that the learning process is important in dealing with male adaptive behaviors like substance abuse. It is a process of identifying problematic behaviors and corrects them with various skills to fight addiction. CBT is based on identifying an individual’s problems and helping the individual’s self-control by developing the ways to cope with the problems effectively. This is done by evaluating the consequences of the substance abuse positive and negative, self-monitoring and recognizing the cravings and their triggers, and developing strategies to cope with the cravings and the triggers. Avoiding the trigger situations also help. In CBT an individual may have a support group to depend on during the recovery process. Such a group is helpful while a person is struggling with solutions. The group also gives positive encouragement during stressful times. In CBT an individual addict is encouraged for positive thinking rather than dwelling in negative thought patterns. CBT can help addicts with low self-esteem to improve their self-esteem which helps in fighting addiction. In CBT an individual learns to resist peer pressure. During CBT an individual can continue his/her normal activities which avoids strained relationships and financial crises.  It is a gradual process both in learning, maintaining and being on their own. It is also very cost effective therapy(National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2014). Motivational Enhancement Therapy Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET) is a counseling approach that helps individual’s confusing dilemma about the treatment of substance abuse and stopping substance abuse. MET is based on the principles of motivational interviewing. It draws self-motivational statements early on in early discussion and plan for change is built on that. This approach engages the addict in building the plan. Based on their own motivations as oppose to societal. People who cannot follow like 12 –steps may benefit from this therapy. Enlightenment can only occur if an individual wants to learn and MET is centered on this insight. Using peoples own statements about desired better outcomes initial resistance is countered after this is achieved an introduction of behavioral techniques can be introduced to support and individual’s ability to fend for him/herself. MET is often used with other cognitive behavioral approaches. MET could go a long way in offering insights for those effective by many mental illness. With this therapy one can heal from other associated problems like anxiety and depression for life style change (The Ranch, 2014). Medication Management Medication Management is when medical care is an option to help someone reduce the risk of drug abuse. It is usually a pharmacists or physicians that help with medication management by lowering the medications based on the side effects and how the person is with taking the medications. It is that the doctor will ask brief questions about the medications and the feel you need therapy or counseling that will then get set up (McNeece, 2012). Community Treatment Approach (CRA) The Community Reinforcement approach is an alcoholism treatment approach that aims to achieve the addict from looking at positive reinforcement for living a sober free lifestyle and to eliminate all enforcement or influences to drink or do drugs (Miller, 2014). This treatment approach embraces positive incentives to stop drinking or doing drugs verses punishing the addict for the continued abuse (Miller, 2014). Community Reinforcement Approach and Family Training Intervention (CRAFT) This approach is an intervention that is based scientifically on intervention strategies designed to help the family members or those concerned with the addict, (CSO), concerned significant others, to help in the facilitation of the addict entering treatment to gain sobriety (Meyers, 2014). This new intervention method was developed with the belief that since family members can, and do make important contribution in other areas of addiction treatment (Meyers, 2014). Conclusion Treatments for people with problems with drug and substance abuse can be helpful when it comes to recovery. The treatment approaches help with managing medications, giving the individual counseling, or even prevention from relapsing back to the addiction. All of these approaches help an individual become healthier and live a longer life. References McNeece, C. A., DiNitto, D. M. (2012). Chemical dependency: A systems approach (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson National Institute on Drug Abuse. (n.n.). Retrieved from https://www.drugabuse.gov/ The Ranch. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.recoveryranch.com/ Meyers, R. (2014). CRAFT. Retrieved from http://http://www.robertjmeyersphd.com/craft.html Miller, W. (2014). The Community-Reinforcement Approach. Retrieved from http://http://www.addictioninfo.org/articles/381/1/The-Community-Reinforcement-Approach/Page1.html

Saturday, October 26, 2019

A Look At Internet Browser Computer Science Essay

A Look At Internet Browser Computer Science Essay An internet browser is the program that you use to access the internet and view web pages. Internet browsers give service to user for access WWW (World Wide Web). There are different web browsers that are used today. Some internet browsers are Microsoft internet explorer Google chrome Mozilla Firefox Opera Netscape Navigator Apple Safari etc. We dont think that which browser is best for us and without knowing features and install it. We need to know which one is best for us and what are advantages and disadvantages and features of it. Here are some basic browsers features that make decision to choose best browser for us. Graphics Some browsers are capable for display text only they do not display any image, videos etc. modern web browsers have features of graphics and work faster and easier to use. Multiple Protocols A protocol is a set of rules that how data is received and transmitted. Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) is the common language of the web and all browsers support it and different protocol that are used for Browsers for browsing web pages. Security Support Many browsers have secure socket layer (SSL). SSL is special protocol to secure in buying and selling and transaction work. Different protocols and services are available to secure users from hackers and viruses. Frames One of the most basic features is frame. This technology divides a browser window into two or more parts. When we load different webpages in different tab. This feature makes work easily and quickly for the users. Filtering Good browsers establish rules for blocking objectionable web content for user. Browser block the web page that is not secure for user and does not browse it. Upload support The internets have many tools of attachment of file and send email etc. browsers must support upload services only older and basic browsers have not support users upload files. Cookies Cookies are small files that web sites leave on a PC. Cookies are must support in browsers to save password and history for users. Plug-ins Plug-in is a separate application that works with browsers to provide the content that is not designed for browsers. Avoid those browsers that are used plugins to provide contents. Language support Some browsers do not support language other than English. A browser which does not support multiple languages is text like gibberish. Best browsers support multiple languages for users. Internet Explorer One of the most powerful web browsers, internet explorer had the 95% usage market share in 2003. This web browser was developed by Microsoft and including by default in Microsoft windows operating system. This is high quality web browser. Internet browser is a good browser is not we know it after knowing advantages and disadvantages of it. Advantages: Availability: Internet Explorer is freely available by default in Microsoft operating system. There is no need to install it. Browsing in tabs: this new feature allowed users to open webpages in same window that we call tabs. No need to open webpages in group or in different windows. Security: security provide to users. User has some problem in different browsers but Internet Explorer has the feature of security to protect users from hackers. Application support: it has support almost every application available on internet and also many tools for help users. Reopen last sessions: when you close your browsers by mistake and lose all data that you were working on. IE save that data in it and when user open this IE restore the last session. Disadvantages: Speed: As we are in speed age and have no time to wait. Users need any browsers that work quickly IE considered as one of the slowest browsers as compared to Firefox and Chrome. It takes too much time to load webpage and downloading files. Security: This is the most annoying internet browsers. Best browser is based on security but internet explorer is the main target for hackers. Microsoft is struggling and trying to make Internet Explorer secure from hackers who steal the information of users. Customization: As compares to different browsers like Firefox and Google Chrome, IE dont have choice to customize privacy setting. Mozilla Firefox Mozilla Firefox is a free and open source web browser. Mozilla Firefox developed by Microsoft Windows and Linux coordinated by Mozilla Corporation and Mozilla Foundation. Mozilla Firefox is third most widely usage of share of web Advantages: Speed: Mozilla is fastest Brower not only do programs and file downloading but also you get the record of downloading that is easier for user to use in future. Security: Firefox has some advanced security that protect from hackers and viruses. Firefox block harmful web content and stop to browse it. Tabbed Browsing: Mozilla Firefox allows users to open unlimited webpages in a single window without opening in different windows. Restore Recent Session: Firefox will remember which internet pages you had open and get us back where users were working if your computer is turned off my mistake. Extensions and themes: Firefox is one of the most easily customize browser with support for browser extensions. It has more than 500 themes and also extension to perform work on toolbar etc. Simple Interface: Firefox has a simple interface that makes it easier to use and work on slower machines. Disadvantages: Compatibility issues: the main disadvantage of Firefox is compatibility. Some websites do not show properly in Firefox and it is view in Internet Explorer. This includes ActiveX and VBScript both of which is not supported by Firefox. Memory: Firefox takes a lot of memory to work and update makes it hard to run and invested heavily memory to use. Interrupted Service: Firefox cannot resume if downloading is interrupted. It may have a lot of trouble if your connection have problem. Google Chrome Google Chrome is a freeware web browser developed by Google. It was first released as beta version for Microsoft windows. Advantages: Speed: Google Chrome is faster than other browsers. it works more quickly. Ease to use: Google Chrome easy to use and work as compare to other browsers. Language support: it has number of Google website features. One of the features is language support which means if web content is in other language then Google Chrome has option to translate it. Speedy Start Up: if you use different browser then you have noticed that Google Chrome is quickly Start Up than others. Cloud Storage: Cloud storage of browser information is a main feature in Google Chrome where you can easily synchronize bookmarks, history, extensions to save it for future use. Chrome also variety of Google cloud-based services, including Gmail, Google Docs and Picasa for ease to user future use. Back up in Google Account and in PC: you can easily store synchronize bookmarks, history, extensions and more between Google Chrome installations on different computers. Chrome also integrates with variety of Google cloud-based services, including Gmail, Google Docs and Picasa by Google account where you can store it. And also save back up in window operating system. Restore session: Google Chrome has a feature of restore last tabs that are lost by any reason. Reopen last website: if Google chrome close by any mistake and after open it the last browsing website is open automatically. Disadvantages: Not Compatible with some websites: One of the main disadvantages of Google Chrome is not compatible with some websites, it not browse some website but better than Firefox and Internet Browser. Because as I have mention above Firefox not compatible and need to install ActiveX etc. but Google chrome is not compatible for some advanced website and no need to install ActiveX etc. No warning when closing Multiple Tabs: if you want to close multiple tab Google Chrome send no warning. As you have noticed that Internet Explorer has many disadvantages, but still have a lot of users. And second usage of share have Firefox and on third Google Chrome. And compare to speed and use I think Google chrome is best browser to use. But in some time we need to use IE. Google Chrome is faster and compatible than IE and Firefox and save bookmark and other things to and restore session etc. Google Chrome is better than IE and Firefox because if you have lost any data of tab and bookmark etc. then you just sign in to Google and get it easily and there is no need to install any plug in, ActiveX etc. Google Chrome faster start up and have also back up in your google account as I mentioned above in last 3 lines. Google Chrome has a lot of themes and also privacy setting. Google Chrome has history of browsers.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

ANABOLIC STEROIDS :: essays research papers

Anabolic steroids are drugs containing, or hormone-like substances, that are used to increase strength and promote muscle growth. They were first developed in the 1930s in Europe to treat undernourished patients and to promote healing after surgery. Competitive weightlifters began using steroids in the 1950s as a way to increase their athletic performance. Use gradually spread throughout the world among athletes in other has been estimated that at least one in 15 male high school seniors in the United States--more than a half-million boys--has used steroids. Some are athletes attempting to increase their strength and size; others are simply youths attempting to speed up their growth to keep pace with their peers. In some countries, anabolic steroids are available over the counter. In the United States, a doctor's prescription is necessary. While the effects of steroids can seem desirable at first, there are serious side effects. Excessive use can cause a harmful imbalance in the body's normal hormonal balance and body chemistry. Heart attacks, water retention leading to high blood pressure and stroke, and liver and kidney tumors all are possible. Young people may develop and a halting of bone growth. Males may experience shrinking testicles, falling sperm counts, and enlarged prostates. Women frequently show signs of masculinity and may be at higher risk for certain types of and the possibility of birth defects in their children. The psychological effects of steroid use are also alarming: drastic mood swings, inability to sleep, and feelings of hostility. Steroids may also be psychologically addictive. Once started, users, particularly athletes, enjoy the physical "benefits" of increased size, strength, and endurance so much that they are reluctant to stop even when told about the risks. Major athletic compet itions, including the Olympics, routinely screen athletes to prevent steroid use.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Managing A Business Event Essay

Managing a business event can be one of the most exciting and challenging tasks that you will get the chance to participate in. It requires you to bring together many different skills and roles, and will give you the opportunity to multi-task, which is a challenge for even the most experienced business event organiser. Organising The first part of organising an event is finding the venue where the event is going to take place. The venue will set the scene for the type of event that is going to happen and will influence whether or not people want attend the event. It will also help to identify the costs that will be involved. Catering may also be an important aspect of organising an event. The type of catering may influence where you decide to hold an event. A three-course lunch is most likely to need a hotel with facilities whilst sandwich delivery may have less strict event location requirements. Planning the different elements of an event will require you to think about the timings of the event, what you need to order and when. It is important that facilities, such as a sound system or projector, be reserved or hired as soon as it is known they will be needed. You will learn in more detail about these aspects of the role in the section on planning an event. Setting up the programme The programme is the list of what is happening at the event and the order in which it is happening. It guides the organisation of the event and will be used by attendees. The programme’s quality and content will help to guide people’s interest as well as give them an outline of what is going to happen during the day. The programme will also give details of any special guests, speeches, entertainment, prize-giving or free gifts that might be part of the event. Sometimes a guest speaker may encourage more people to attend and this will need to be highlighted in the programme. There are a variety of different types of programme that may be used for an event. These may include programmes that have various activities that attendees can select from or programmes where everyone is following the same structure for the event. The length of time for the event will also influence the programme. All-day events need more time for people to travel to the event and for coffee and lunch breaks. Events that take place over a few days may require arrangements for accommodation including breakfast. Preparing and distributing supporting documents Most events require some form of hard copy or soft copy that can be distributed. For environmental and cost reasons, soft copies are often preferred. Sometimes documents may be supplied on a USB stick or in a free wallet or bag that is given out by the event organiser. Often promotional items include advertising material for the organiser to give them maximum publicity and raise awareness of the organisation. The main documents that might be needed for an event are listed in Table 18.2. A number of different documents may be needed to support an event. These may be more traditional paper documents or other methods that organisations are increasingly using such as websites with a secure username and password, email or social networking websites to distribute information about events. There are also a number of other documents that may be produced that are not given out to attendees. These are used by the organisation to monitor and track the progress of the event, for example, a risk assessment or a budget plan. Organisational procedures Organisations will usually have a set of procedures that they follow for events, and these procedures will change depending on the size of the organisation, the type of event that is taking place and who is involved. Current legal requirements There are a number of important legal requirements that need to be considered when organising an event. These include contractual, health and safety and age requirements. Most legal requirements are covered by a contractual agreement that will be agreed either verbally or in writing. The contract sets out the offer and prices for the individual elements of the event including: * venue * catering * insurance * advertising/promotion. Separate agreements can be made with outside suppliers and may include those used for booking a hotel venue or hiring equipment. The Supply of Goods and Services Act 1982 ensures that the event organiser is supplied with goods and services as part of a contract; it also protects suppliers and customers. The Act sets out requirements for ticketing that protect both the event organiser and attendees, and also protects consumers from faulty equipment. There is more information about contracts, agreements and consumer protection in Unit 21. There are stringent health and safety requirements for events. Risk assessments will highlight any issues found whilst organising an event and help the organiser take steps to reduce the likelihood of anything untoward happening. More specific requirements for health and safety can be found later in this unit. Finally, any event that is organised needs to meet age requirements. For example, at a music event or festival, it must be ensured that young people are aged 18 or over if they are going to buy any alcohol or tobacco products that are on sale. Remember that any event must take place within the law and steps must be taken to avoid any problems. Limits of the role An event organiser must consider the levels of authority that come with the role. Knowing what you can and cannot do is very important. For example, at some events the event organiser may not have the authority to sign a contract for services or they may not have the authority to make the final decision as these decisions may ultimately be the duty of their line manager. An event organiser may also work with other individuals or groups who need to make decisions about the event, which means that any decisions have to be shared by the group rather than be taken by a single person. Time management The role of an event organiser involves multi-tasking which means that good time management is an important quality for the job. Good time management means that you focus on what is important and keep everything on track. The most common time management mistakes made are: * wasting time doing activities that are not relevant to the event, such as checking personal emails * waiting for someone else to do something before being able to progress on another aspect of the event * not being organised, e.g. spending time looking for paperwork or going over tasks that you have done before. Problem solving There are few events that do not have any problems at all. To help the event run smoothly the organiser will need to have already thought about what possible problems might occur and have made contingency plans. For example, if the event is to include computer presentations or DVDs the organiser may want to check the services provided at the venue and also take along their own lap top and projector as a back-up. Some problems cannot be anticipated; therefore quick thinking is necessary and good event organisers have this quality and are able to sort out solutions. Negotiating Negotiating skills are essential for any event organiser. Negotiating, unlike other types of communication, is not about making demands or threatening people, it is about trying to get to what is known as a ‘win win’ situation where both parties are happy with the outcome. It may be necessary to negotiate prices on contracts to try to get the best possible deal, which is particularly important if the event is being done on a budget. Negotiating may also be used to ask for something that is not usually possible, for example, a particular type of catering or entertainment that may be more difficult to provide than usual. Planning The main role of an event organiser is to ensure that everything goes to plan so that the event is a success. Planning does not just include the event itself, it also needs to take into account other events that are happening around the same time. Too many similar events happening in the same week may result in poor attendance at your event. The time of year will also influence the planning of an event. When planning an event, the organiser needs to think about the following. * Whether the event needs to be inside or outside. It is usually more appropriate to run outside events in the summer. * Whether the event is linked to a particular festival or tradition. If so, it will need to happen at the same time. * Whether the event depends on other factors such as supplies that are only available at certain times of year or are cheaper in a particular month to save costs.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

The opening of a story with reference to essays

The opening of a story with reference to essays The opening of a story plays a significant role in introducing the ideas and issues that are addressed in a story. We all fall down by Robert Cormier is no exception to this. The opening of Cormiers book introduces the issues of deception, destruction and the idea that an event can affect every person differently. It is these ideas and issues that play an important role in the story. The issue of deception is present throughout we all fall down. The first time the reader acknowledges the idea of deception is when the avenger is describing his supposedly requited relationship with the Jeromes. The reader believes the avenger to be like a son and brother to the family. This incorrect idea only lasts a short while as the reader begins to question why, if he is such a significant part of the family, the avenger watched while the Jeromes house was being destroyed. The reader is introduced to the character Mickey Stallings, or Mickey Loony as he has been named by the children in the community, and they believe him to be just a neighborhood handy man even if he is a little loony. Not only are the other characters in the book lead to believe this but the reader is also. This idea is retained by both the reader and the character until his real identity is revealed towards the end of the book. At this time the deception surrounding Mickey Stallings and the avenger is revealed. The opening of we all fall down presents the reader with an image of the trashers. This image is that of disobedient teenage rebels seeking fun at the expense of other. This image is maintained until the avenger states that the trashers were regular kids, not sleazies rough guy or drop outs. Later in the book the avengers image of the trashers is enforced when we are introduced to the character Buddy walker, one of the ...

Monday, October 21, 2019

Whole Foods Founder Essays

Whole Foods Founder Essays Whole Foods Founder Essay Whole Foods Founder Essay Whole Foods Ronick Weatherly Grantham University BA420 Organizational Behavior Anthony Clark 08/15/2013 Whole Foods’ CEO Mr. Mackey’s online comments about Wild Oats clearly show (A, Affect) that he has strong negative opinions about the Wild Oats Company and its management team. On the other hand, Mackey spoke highly of Whole Foods, his own company. Mackey clearly gave erbal statements about his feelings that indicated his opinion of Wild Oats and Whole Foods. By posting his opinionated and negative comments in Yahoo Finance for nearly eight years, Mackey showed and told of his behavioral intentions (B, Behavioral intentions) to â€Å"destroy† Wild Oats.Mackey showed his attitude scale (C, Cognition) by implying that Wild Oats was a poorly run company and that his company, Whole Foods was the company he frequented, purchased stock in, and agreed with their mission and values. In terms of instrumental values, Mackey’s blogging behav ior relative to the Wild Oats cquisition could be seen as courageous, ambitious, and independent. Mackey was probably trying to drive down the stock of Wild Oats by making it seem as though the company was worthless, while at the same time trying to acquire it. In terms of instrumental values, he did not show honesty( Mackey commented under a fake screen name), self-control, rationality, politeness or responsibility( Mackey never took responsibility for his actions on the blog). In terms of terminal values Mackey’s blogging behavior relative to the Wild Oats acquisition howed Freedom(Mackey did and said whatever he wanted), and Wisdom(he was able to acquire Wild Oats and probably made their business seem less profitable to anyone else interested in acquiring the company).The FTC and SEC probably saw a lack of instrumental and terminal values with regards to Mackey’s blogging. He was dishonest, showed a lack of self-control, lacked open-mindedness of the competition, sh owed no social respect for others, and showed a lack of responsibility for his actions. Mackey clearly tried to steer potential investors and tockholders away from Wild Oats and towards his company. I agree with John Hollon of The Business Management blog, when he states that Mackey is â€Å" a delusional apologist of his own bad behavior†. From my personal perspective, I believe Mackey acted in an unethical manner with regards to his blogging at a time when he was trying to Acquire Wild Oats. He showed pure High Machiavellianism in his manipulative behavior. By claiming he would destroy Wild Oats CEO, he showed he rather be feared than loved. Mackey was deceitful and would go to any lengths to get his desired outcome.John Mackey is operating on level 2 of cognitive moral development. Mackey’s behavior was based solely on what he could gain, at this time it was Wild Oats, or self- interest reasoning. The use of the pseudonym Rahodeb showed that Mackey knew what he was doing was wrong and he did not want to write those damning posts under his own name. He knew that it would be seen as negative and deceitful and did not want to associate those comments with himself or his company. Mackey showed a lack of values and ethics and his behavior could be seen as workplace deviance behavior.As an ethical, responsible leader Mackey should be at level five of his cognitive moral development. At the stage five level, a leader would make all decisions based on principles of justice and rights. This type of leader would be less likely to cheat, and more likely to make ethical business decisions, unlike the decisions that Mackey made. If what Mr. Mackey is saying is true, then it could be a lack of person-organization fit, which usually occurs when the employee’s values don’t match the organization’s values. I do not think this is the case here since he was the CEO and could have contributed to enforcing and einforcing positive ethical behav ior, instead he did the opposite. Mackey took the time to create a fake account and name and comment for many years under this false identity. That would show that these were his own beliefs and after being found out, he was ashamed of the behavior and wanted to disassociate himself from the mess he had created. .

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Essay on Code-switching an essential phenomenon of the bilingual world part 2

Essay on Code-switching an essential phenomenon of the bilingual world part 2 Essay on Code-switching: an essential phenomenon of the bilingual world part 2 Essay on Code-switching: an essential phenomenon of the bilingual world part 2Essay on Code-switching: an essential phenomenon of the bilingual world part 1Gal (1979) claims that code-switching is also used to express solidarity with certain group or emphasize certain point of view. Some scientists are of the opinion that code-switching serves a number of pragmatic purposes such as aggravating or mitigating the communicative situation or message of a person. Recent studies on the question of code-switching have shown that it takes place in both informal and formal contexts of the communicative process and has long become a norm for bilinguals. Code-switching is now an inseparable part of the bilingual world that is functionally motivated and serves to fulfill one’s communicative intents.As for the purposes of code-switching, there should be mentioned the following:Code-switching serves as expressing one’s culture as any language is a direct sign of someone’s belo nging to a certain cultural group.It serves to make one’s speech more emotional and full of certain feelings as for this or that event or situation.Code-switching may also perform a function of an invitation or some kind of connection to a person spoken to. It is a sign of a friendly attitude to the addressee.Code-switching often serves as an expression of one’s identity and relation to certain language group. It happens when a person really values his or her language and wants to show respect to the language he or she uses on a daily basis with family or friends.Some people, especially those who are not bilingual, use code-switching for a simple play with language, so as to diversify their speech and make it livelier. Such a trick also serves as making one’s speech more humorous; it often happens that certain jokes or sayings seem more appropriate and up to the topic in another language.In some cases, code-switching is an expression of resistance to the promoti on of monolingualism being practiced in many countries of the world. In this case, a bilingual person tries to emphasize that he or she is against some sort of discrimination towards those using two or more languages on a daily basis.Finally, code-switching is known to be a widespread literary device used by many authors for different purposes, such as expressing some jokes that sound better in another language or emphasizing the cultural adherence of the author to this or that community.It should be admitted that this phenomenon serves as means of diversifying one’s speech, making it more emotional and filling it with expressiveness. Thus, by switching from one language to another, a bilingual person does not only show his language competence, but also makes his or her speech more emotional and bright. This creates a positive impression of a person and often leads to better understanding between the parties involved in a conversation. In such a way, it can be concluded that code-switching has more positive features than negative ones. The above-mentioned aspects of code-switching and its purposes lead to a conclusion that switching from one language or dialect to another is rather a useful phenomenon that diversifies one’s speech making it more comprehensive to the parties involved in a conversation that probably belong to different age groups, professions or cultures. In this regard, it can be rightfully admitted that code-switching unites nations and serves for establishing the relationships between people.To conclude, the above research contains a full-fledged analysis of the question of code-switching and the purposes it serves in the process of communication. It needs to be admitted that the research has covered many questions that often occur when speaking about code-switching. Thus, the research provides a deep analysis of why code-switching cannot be considered a sign of language incompetence. In fact, it is rather a sign of one’s language capability as bilingualism is a truly miraculous linguistic phenomenon that is, however, often interpreted in a wrong way. The above research has covered the most vital questions concerning code-switching on the basis of findings and investigations of a number of reputable linguists. It should be said that a lot is still to be discussed and many questions are still to be answered. The above research represents an attempt to prove that code-switching does not imply one’s language incapacity, having a number of positive sides that should be taken into account. Code-switching is clearly a useful phenomenon that fills the speech of bilinguals with emotions and encourages the two parties involved in a conversation to understand each other better.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Explaining Management Decisions (SPORTS MANAGEMENT) Essay

Explaining Management Decisions (SPORTS MANAGEMENT) - Essay Example Using the case of Karsten manufacturing corporation, this paper seeks to explain the management decisions in a business. While the vice president’s feelings are understandable, it is imperative to understand that a decision takes several stages and considerations before being reached. Secondly, decision makers face situations that require information which might not be available. For instance the situation of uncertainty faces a person when there is limitation of facts. Complexity is another situation that tends to demand the consideration of other interrelated factors. Then, high-risk consequences situations require that one be keen on the decision because it will have significant consequences. As noted above, management often makes decisions with considerations being made primarily about the organization not the feelings of individuals. Thus, managements tend to employ a number of theories to reach this decision. This is section will focus on the steps that management take in the culmination of a decision-making. The first thing a management is faced with is a situation before a decision is made. For this reason, the management takes time trying to understand the situation. According to Nienaber (2010), the reason competent management takes time here is that the definition of a problem will shape the next process. Thus, management tends to be careful on understanding the situation once it has been recognized as one that requires more attention. Once a problem has been confirmed to exist, it has to be solved, and this calls for a solution. However, because of the complexities of situations, coming up with the right decision is not always easy. Hence, the management draws alternatives first in a bid to identify the most applicable in the given situation. Evaluation of the most appropriate alternatives follows where the management closely looks into each of the alternatives. The selection of the best

Friday, October 18, 2019

Strategic Management Analysis on B-777 Aircraft Term Paper

Strategic Management Analysis on B-777 Aircraft - Term Paper Example Boeing 777 business development under Philip Condit is a clear demonstration of a well thought strategic management analysis of the company that helped the Boeing 777 to be an industry leader through large market share. The company through its leadership identified key weaknesses that threatened to collapse the company that included production inefficiencies, high cost of production, delays in delivery among others. This discussion looks at the strategic management of the business in detail. SWOT Analysis SWOT analysis involves strategic analysis of both internal and external business environment. Internal business environment is analyzed by looking at the strengths and weakness of a firm while external environment is analyzed through opportunities and threats brought about by forces without the organization. The strengths of the Boeing 777 Aircraft mentioned in the case study are discussed below as follows. One, the company’s decision to involve airline operators across the g lobe who operated earlier versions of Boeing airlines to generate ideas on the new design and customer preferences helped to develop an aircraft that met the needs of the target customers. Decision to outsource key services through subcontracting internationally and within US helped to spread risk reduce time taken to break even. This meant that the company would benefit from comparative advantage of each partner it was working with. In addition, working with various companies across the ground created an opportunity and easy market penetration (Hill and Jones 2009). Strong relationship developed between Philip Condit and the employees (engineers) helped to end the secretive management style. This allowed free flow of information and sharing of new ideas. Acquisition of McDonell Douglas Company in 1997 helped Boeing to become the world’s largest manufacturer and supplier of military aircraft thus expanding this market segment as well as eliminating one of its competitors. In fact its main rival was now Airbus Industries which trailed it by sales. The acquisition helped the Boeing to ride on the skills and networks developed by the acquired company. Ability to develop flexible design from the Boeing 777 helped the company to meet orders for cargo, long, medium and short distance travel aircraft without necessarily incurring high design and development costs. Use of the Digital Designs helped to identify errors and overlaps thus improving on efficiency and reducing time taken to deliver an aircraft. In terms of weaknesses that characterized the company, huge development cost initially threatened the survival of the business. It made returns low and the company would take a long time to break even not to mention creation problem of cash flow. Rising costs, declining productivity and delays in delivers in the early 1990s when the Boeing 777 project was being developed was not a positive aspect towards the project. Highly structured management style just bef ore Philip Condit to the scenes would have easily affected idea generation, product development and production. Huge labor force and large capital outlay required to develop the aircraft almost exhausted the company’s income streams. Managing such a large workforce and imparting the necessary skills was going to be a big challenge especially with the then management structure. The fact that Boeing 777 projec

Social Web Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Social Web - Research Paper Example Besides pros there are several cons of maintaining these connections as well. This is a very grave issue as these side effects are negatively shaping the human society and leading it into a dangerous future. The current report mentions what negative effects these advancements are having on the individuals of the society and thus on the society as a whole. Some future trends of the so called social web are also highlighted along with addressing some measures that should be looked up by governing authorities. This is essential for a safer and prosperous future. INTRODUCTION Social Web is the new terminology with which the visual social connections of each digital device are connected to each other via the internet. The platforms that support the evolution and maintenance of the social connections are various and limitless. Examples of platforms supporting social web profiles are Facebook, Twitter, Orkut LinkdIn etc. The globalization of today’s world sees it as such that virtual ly every human being is connected to the web in one way or the other. People connected to the internet have the privilege of accessing all other sorts of information on it. Via the Internet anyone connected to it can stay up-to-date with the very latest information, can telecommute, check stock prices, compare prices and shop online, communicate with others in chat rooms or on bulletin boards, take different online learning courses, learn how to cook food, train tickets and even earn an accredited degree.... BACKGROUND/HISTORY The roots of communications and information technology can roughly be dated back to the advent of ‘telephone’ by Graham Bell in the year 1875 (Saari, 2006). It is the tenure from the analog telephone to the most well equipped cell phones today that modified the lifestyles of their users’ en-route. Thus behavioral changes on the fronts of societies were also exhibited. American computer scientist Alan Kay said, "Technology is all that stuff that wasn't around when (you) were born   because the stuff that was around when you were born   was just part of the landscape. Like the pencil." Also, McLuhan (1960) said, "The new electronic interdependence recreates the world in the image of a global village"   Once, invented the technological changes went on at a very rapid rate, quick decisions were made regarding the changes in each decade. Presently, decisions need to be formulated that would cater to the long lasting consequences of the very adv anced changes on the society. The social and economic impacts of these technologies are the most important changes that should never be overlooked. As said by mathematician Konsbruck Lee Robert, (n.d.) â€Å"Today, innovations in information technology are having wide-ranging effects across numerous domains of society, and policy makers are acting on issues involving economic productivity, intellectual property rights, privacy protection, and affordability of and access to information. Choices made now will have long- lasting consequences, and attention must be paid to their social and economic impacts.† The social impacts of Information and technology advancements have turned the present human society upside down from what it used

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Personal Code of Conduct Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Personal Code of Conduct - Research Paper Example Some of the key areas where the patient first ethic is relevant are through interactions with workmates, patients, the public, other healthcare services professionals and student trainees. Through the conduct, adherence to relevant rules and regulations will be a priority, management and decision making and impartiality in service will be core determinants of service delivery (Tuckett, 2004). The code will offer a standard of review, which will guide the course of service delivery – correcting errors where they occur and in pointing out areas with deficiencies, which can hinder the quality of care delivered. Personal Commitments The first provision of the ANA code for nurses requires the nurse, through all professional relations to work respectfully and compassionately, for the ultimate worth, dignity and the uniqueness of all, without regard to economic or social status, physical characteristics or the kind of health problems (ANA, 2011). This implies that the service deliver ed to different patients should not be discriminatory to any group, and compassion and respect should be offered to all. Deriving from this provision, I will offer healthcare services to all patients in a compassionate and respectful manner, without consideration of their social, cultural or physical characteristics. ... This provision directs that the nurse is admitted into healthcare services delivery to offer care to serve patients of all kinds (ANA, 2011). In observing this provision, I will always overlook all competing tasks, to serve the different patients that seek my service. One case when I exercised this provision was a case when I faced the option of leaving the office for home, but a patient came in requesting for immediate service. During the situation, I took time and attended to him, which took me an hour, before I left the office. The third provision states that the nurse holds the duty of promoting, advocating for and striving to safeguard the safety, health and the rights of the patient (ANA, 2011). This provision directs that the nurse hold the responsibility of working towards the safety, health and ensuring that the rights of the different patients are respected, by themselves as healthcare providers and others. This implies that they can report a situation that compromises the rights or the health of patients to respective agencies like courts. One case during my service at the plastic surgeon’s office, which required me to exercise this provision, was a case, when a patient who had been operated on – by a quark practitioner – came to the office. After attending to him, I evaluated the injuries caused and presented the reports to the police, following which they started the search for the quark practitioner. The fourth provision states that the nurse is answerable for individual nursing care and influences the suitable delegation of roles in ways that are in consistency to the obligation of the nurse, to offer the best care to

Menu Selection Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Menu Selection - Assignment Example Menu driven interfaces refer to interfaces which enable users to make interactions with computers or technological devices through menus, leading in a series of different screens. The various commands provided by the device enable the user to navigate through the devices and perform various desired functions. The aspect of communication remains the most essential element in ensuring an individual’s capacity to operate a computer or device. In enhancing communication, a dialogue must become established between the person and the device. Within a menu-driven interface dialogue with users becomes established through the information contained within the device, which provides options to users, from which to choose from (Ong & Tan, 2000). Upon the pressing of each button the device provides a predetermined response, subsequently displaying the next screen, as desired by the user. The dialogue element provides the user with different options regarding the services being sought. The device offers guidelines towards ensuring the user performs the desired function. The screens are designed in a sequence which leads the user towards achieving the desired purpose. The modern age has seen tremendous improvement in the utilization of menu driven interfaces among many technological devices. The increased utilization of these interfaces could be attributed to the following reasons Simplicity – menu driven interfaces remain relatively easy to utilize as individuals only have to follow prompts provided by the device. This makes it possible for individuals without previous knowledge of the device become able to use these devices (Gudur, Blackler, Popovic, & Mahar, 2013). All an individual requires in knowledge of the language which the interface communicates with, and following the commands. No commands – the users do not have to enter commands into the device to produce certain information. The use of commands requires

Development of The Constitution Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Development of The Constitution - Essay Example The English legal system denied provisions granting necessary resources and protection to the people accused of crimes; unless the allegations were proven true. It was the American law which initially offered legal asylum to the accused groups (Paul, 2006). The legal asylum does not imply special and lenient treatment, rather the defendants were provided with minimum services to defend their position. The intent of such measures has been to bring credibility to the judicial system of the United States. Before 1960s, the courts were reluctant to offer counsel services to the accused groups. The services for the counsel were either limited or rejected; the provisions for counsels were provided based upon the financial standing of the accused groups. It was in the case entitled Powell v. Alabama 1963, when the court favoured the counselling services for the accused groups; the ruling encouraged the states to offer judicial protection to the accused groups through counselling. This was considered to be the first ruling which blatantly refused and challenged the interpretation of the British law; the law which discouraged any such counselling provisions for the accused groups. The court ruling considered it to be the legitimate demand of the defence for provisions of legal counselling services; however the court involved the states to determine the extent and nature of counselling to the accused groups. In 1942 during the hearing of Bett v. Brady, the court ruled it necessary to provid e adequate legal protection to the accused group through counselling; however the requirement of legal counselling through lawyer to the accused group shall be evaluated on the basis of necessity. Such rulings confirmed that American law was adopting distinct approach, and in some cases challenged the interpretation of the English law. In 1960 the American law confirmed and reiterated its resolution to provide

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Personal Code of Conduct Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Personal Code of Conduct - Research Paper Example Some of the key areas where the patient first ethic is relevant are through interactions with workmates, patients, the public, other healthcare services professionals and student trainees. Through the conduct, adherence to relevant rules and regulations will be a priority, management and decision making and impartiality in service will be core determinants of service delivery (Tuckett, 2004). The code will offer a standard of review, which will guide the course of service delivery – correcting errors where they occur and in pointing out areas with deficiencies, which can hinder the quality of care delivered. Personal Commitments The first provision of the ANA code for nurses requires the nurse, through all professional relations to work respectfully and compassionately, for the ultimate worth, dignity and the uniqueness of all, without regard to economic or social status, physical characteristics or the kind of health problems (ANA, 2011). This implies that the service deliver ed to different patients should not be discriminatory to any group, and compassion and respect should be offered to all. Deriving from this provision, I will offer healthcare services to all patients in a compassionate and respectful manner, without consideration of their social, cultural or physical characteristics. ... This provision directs that the nurse is admitted into healthcare services delivery to offer care to serve patients of all kinds (ANA, 2011). In observing this provision, I will always overlook all competing tasks, to serve the different patients that seek my service. One case when I exercised this provision was a case when I faced the option of leaving the office for home, but a patient came in requesting for immediate service. During the situation, I took time and attended to him, which took me an hour, before I left the office. The third provision states that the nurse holds the duty of promoting, advocating for and striving to safeguard the safety, health and the rights of the patient (ANA, 2011). This provision directs that the nurse hold the responsibility of working towards the safety, health and ensuring that the rights of the different patients are respected, by themselves as healthcare providers and others. This implies that they can report a situation that compromises the rights or the health of patients to respective agencies like courts. One case during my service at the plastic surgeon’s office, which required me to exercise this provision, was a case, when a patient who had been operated on – by a quark practitioner – came to the office. After attending to him, I evaluated the injuries caused and presented the reports to the police, following which they started the search for the quark practitioner. The fourth provision states that the nurse is answerable for individual nursing care and influences the suitable delegation of roles in ways that are in consistency to the obligation of the nurse, to offer the best care to

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Development of The Constitution Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Development of The Constitution - Essay Example The English legal system denied provisions granting necessary resources and protection to the people accused of crimes; unless the allegations were proven true. It was the American law which initially offered legal asylum to the accused groups (Paul, 2006). The legal asylum does not imply special and lenient treatment, rather the defendants were provided with minimum services to defend their position. The intent of such measures has been to bring credibility to the judicial system of the United States. Before 1960s, the courts were reluctant to offer counsel services to the accused groups. The services for the counsel were either limited or rejected; the provisions for counsels were provided based upon the financial standing of the accused groups. It was in the case entitled Powell v. Alabama 1963, when the court favoured the counselling services for the accused groups; the ruling encouraged the states to offer judicial protection to the accused groups through counselling. This was considered to be the first ruling which blatantly refused and challenged the interpretation of the British law; the law which discouraged any such counselling provisions for the accused groups. The court ruling considered it to be the legitimate demand of the defence for provisions of legal counselling services; however the court involved the states to determine the extent and nature of counselling to the accused groups. In 1942 during the hearing of Bett v. Brady, the court ruled it necessary to provid e adequate legal protection to the accused group through counselling; however the requirement of legal counselling through lawyer to the accused group shall be evaluated on the basis of necessity. Such rulings confirmed that American law was adopting distinct approach, and in some cases challenged the interpretation of the English law. In 1960 the American law confirmed and reiterated its resolution to provide

Call Now to Buy Your Very Own Sham Essay Example for Free

Call Now to Buy Your Very Own Sham Essay In â€Å"The Hard Sell: Advertising in America†, Bill Bryson gives specific insight on the necessity of being more aware of why you buy what you buy. Bryson argues that the product name must be short, simple and unique. He states, â€Å"First. It is short. Second. It is not capable of mispronunciation. Third. It does not resemble anything in the art†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (425). Another effective advertising strategy that Bryson observes is the â€Å"giveaway†. Bryson states, â€Å"Consumers became acquainted with the irresistibly tempting notion that if they bought a particular product they could expect a reward†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (427). Bryson also asserts the importance of creating in the consumer a feeling of anxiety that makes the consumer feel as if they NEED the product and not just merely WANT it (428-429). Another efficient selling tactic is the use of scientific-sounding terms, according to Bryson, â€Å"There was never slightest hint of what GL-70 was, but it would, according to the advertising, not only rout odor-causing bacteria but ‘wipe out enzymes!’† (434). Bryson is very insightful and emphatic in his arguments about the alluring thought of a reward, the necessity to create an anxiety in the consumer, and the conclusive â€Å"scientific studies†. Take, for example, any product you can find on a late-night television infomercial. One of the most effective advertisements is the commercial for the ShamWow. Like all the products found on the infomercials, the ShamWow â€Å"comes at an UNBEATABLE offer, call now and get not one, but TWO ShamWows for the price of one!† The company does a very effective job at pulling in the viewer with this line, sometimes you can get even more products like books and containers if you call quick enough. The announcer does a great job at creating the anxiety by asking, â€Å"Does your car always have unsightly water spots? Do your friends ask you when the last time you cleaned your car? Fear no more! The ShamWow will WOW your friends and family!† This causes the viewer to become embarras sed if their vehicle has water spots on it, leading them to want to purchase the ShamWow so they can dry their car before the sun bakes on the water spots. Lastly, and most effectively, the company includes an exaggerated quality by stating that the ShamWow â€Å"holds 12x its weight† to get the consumer to think that they do some kind of study. If you pause in your daily life and take a step by and analyze all the commercials and advertisements that you are bombarded with every day, you will begin to notice the advertising schemes employed by the companies. Bryson’s advice still holds its weight in gold, much like the ShamWow does with water, today. Consumers are tricked into think they need products that they have no use for and can get at a cheaper price.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Candide Is A Humorous Satire About Young Candide Religion Essay

Candide Is A Humorous Satire About Young Candide Religion Essay Criticism of religion is a reappearing topic in Candide. After the great earthquake that destroys Lisbon, agents of the Inquisition capture Candide and Pangloss. Pangloss is charged with speaking his mind and Candide for seeming to approve what he had said. Eight days later, they are prepared for an auto-da-fe where Candide is whipped and Pangloss is hanged. The very same day, there is another earthquake. Voltaire intended this event to show the foolishness and ineffectiveness of the Church. The auto-da-fe is organized because the Inquisitors believe that by punishing offenders, they can save the city from any additional damage. The reader sees through the closely following earthquake that the Church made no difference with their impractical solution. One also sees the cruelty shown by the Inquisitors, the intended servants of God that in Candides reality only harm. They wickedly torture and execute their fellow citizens over philosophical disputes, many of which cannot be backed up by Scripture. Voltaire strongly emphasizes the hypocrisy shown by the Church officials that Candide encounters. The Grand Inquisitor captures a man for marrying his godmother, and yet he himself is guilty of several crimes. He threatens to use his influence with the Church to punish Don Issachar for his Jewish religion if he does not share Cunà ©gonde with him as his mistress. The Inquisitor plainly shows his hypocrisy through this blackmail and unchaste behavior. Cunà ©gondes own brother, the baron, becomes a Jesuit priest. He is guilty of having homosexual tendencies, as implied throughout his part in the book. Even the most prominent Church figure, the Pope, has a role in Candide, even though Candide does not meet him directly. Candide meets an old woman who is the daughter of a Pope. Simply the fact that the Pope has a daughter makes him a sinner and a hypocrite, for he violated his vows of celibacy. These themes of sin and blatant hypocrisy appear in connection with the Churc h throughout Candide. As a well-known philosopher, Voltaire had his own specific beliefs about life and human nature, many of which he expressed in Candide. One of his major ideas throughout the book is a question of philosophy, but in a different sense than one would think should come from a man of his time. Voltaire still channels Enlightenment thought as he argues against philosophy as a pattern for life and instead promotes practical action and hard work. Candides mentor, Pangloss, believes in unrestrained optimism. This is shown though his constant assertions that everything is for the best. Pangloss is Voltaires burlesque representation of a group of philosophers during the Enlightenment known for their optimism. As crisis and calamity repeatedly befall Candide and Pangloss, his never-wavering optimism appears self-indulgent and senseless. Voltaire supplies a polar opposite to Pangloss in Martin. Also a philosopher, Martin is an internally scarred man who advocates complete pessimism. His negativity is so absolute that he disagrees with Candides statement that there is some good in the world. Martins philosophy appears to be more reasonable. This could be because his character is more knowledgeable, or simply because the philosophy itself is more suited to human nature. Voltaire himself leans more towards Martins views in his personal thinking, but he points out that Martins philosophy is also flawed. Because Martin believes that nothing happens for the better in the world, he cannot see it as it really is. Although the many tragic events that happen support Martins pessimism, Voltaire denounces this philosophy as asinine as well. Coming from a philosopher, condemnation of a philosophic lifestyle, both optimistic and pessimistic, creates a heavy emphasis on the virtues of hard work and action instead of unreasonable thoughts. In Candide, Voltaire champions honest hard work. His character Cacambo is a reliable, practical man. In contrast to the philosophers, Pangloss and Martin, Cacambo inspires confidence and optimism, although he is neither an optimist nor a pessimist. When Candide gets into trying situations, Cacambo repeatedly helps him. Through this, Voltaire shows that action is more beneficial and practical than ideas are. Cacambo disagrees with Pangloss opinion that the world is created perfect by his own experiences, saying that the law of nature teaches us to kill our neighbor. He directly disproves Martins view of the world through his trustworthiness. Cacambo is responsible for reuniting Candide with his love, Cunà ©gonde. Instead of taking advantage of Candide as so many others did, Cacambo stays true to his word. Many misfortunes befall Cacambo, as with most other characters in the book, but he manages to lessen the ill effects of these events through his intellect and willingness to work in order to improve the world. Cacambo restores the readers faith in human nature after so many other characters have destroyed it. Voltaires Candide is a masterpiece of the Enlightenment, championing the ideals of hard work and morality. Voltaire takes a traditional Enlightenment perspective on the corruption within the organization of the Church, exposing the guilt and hypocrisy he sees in Church officials. While Voltaire condemns philosophy as a basis for life, he does not denounce it completely. He elevates Cacambo above the other characters because he uses thought in a practical way, while Pangloss and Martins philosophies prevent them from seeing the true world and living in reality. Voltaire masterfully manipulates his characters to reflect Enlightenment values and his personal beliefs pertaining to them.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Andrea Palladio Essay examples -- Andrea Palladio

The Renaissance produced a wealth of great skill and craftsmanship. Describe in detail the work of one of its great artists or architects. Andrea Palladio (1508-80) was one of the most influential figures of Renaissance architecture, who worked in Vicenza in northern Italy as well as in Venice and the surrounding Veneto. Born in Padua, Palladio trained as a stonemason moving to Vicenza in 1524 to continue his training. Giangiorgio Trissino (1478-1550), his patron, introduced him to classical and humanist studies and took him on his first trip to Rome – where he later spent two years studying. His architectural development was deeply influenced by this direct study of Roman antiquity. Trissino’s patronage gave Palladio access to a powerful humanist circle who provided him with commissions for the duration of his career – including Palladio’s public projects such as the Palazzo della Ragione, or Basilica, and the Teatro Olimpico which together permanently changed Vicenza’s public architecture. Originally a Gothic town hall, the Palazzo della Ragione or Basilica (commissioned in 1549), was on the verge of crumbling and Palladio won a competition to redesign it. His answer was to encase it on three sides with a two-storey loggia that provided reinforcement and transformed the exterior with classic columned arcades on two levels. Arches were placed between pilasters, Doric on the lower level, Ionic above, supporting entablatures. In each bay, the arch rests on small columns placed away from the larger pilasters with a rectangular gap in between - now known as the ‘Palladian motif’. Palladio had an exceptional grasp of the use of proportion in classical architecture and believed beautiful architecture improved p... ...d in 1580, the project had only just begun. The theatre was completed by Vincenzo Scamozzi assisted by Palladio’s son, Silla, and would serve as a model for theatres across Europe for centuries. Palladio reinvented the Veneto’s architecture – and his influence eventually extended a long way past the region’s borders. His impact was very much helped by the publication of his I Quattro Libri dell’ Architectura (The Four Books of Architecture) in 1570. Covering classical design and including translations from Vitruvius, illustrative woodcut plates of classical design and of his own Renaissance work, the text was known throughout Europe – particularly in England, notably by Inigo Jones, the 17th Century English architect – and ultimately in America where buildings such as Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello in Virginia (1770) are clearly founded on Palladian principles.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

And Then There Were None :: essays research papers

Agatha Christie's And Then There Were None, published by Washington Square Press, is regarded by most critics to be her masterpiece. After publishing almost eighty books, this was the one she was truly most proud of. Why? Mainly, because critics have quoted it to have sold more copies than Shakespeare and the Bible. However, Christie has so much more to be proud of in this novel. With an outstanding mystery/murder plot, combined with a dark, cryptic setting involving many deranged guests; one can see she has accomplished a lot in this novel.Ten guests are invited to a mysterious island called "Indian Island". Each guest was sent invitations that were signed by people they had met before. Once the visitors arrived at the island and were aquatinted with each other, they found out that their host, U.N. Owen, (Unknown) had not arrived yet. At dinner, a strange voice was heard, accusing each of them of a murder, and which they were all guilty of. This is the rising action of the story. One by one each guest is killed off by the anonymous murderer according to a famous nursery rhyme. As more people are killed off, one by one, the group narrows the suspect list down. Hence defining the classic "Who Done It?" mystery novel.The Characters in And Then There Were None are the ones who make the book come to life. Because this novel follows the "Who Done It" theme, there are the few obvious characters. 1) The inspector, always trying to get an accusation across as to who the murderer is(of course never correct). 2) The doctor, Devon Island's answer to the question nobody ever asked. 3) The old married couple (Mr. + Mrs. Rogers), always passionate to others, until a guest discovers an eerie secret. 4) The murderer (Justice Wargrave), finally the one guest that is portrait as the most obvious, until he dies (then comes back to life). This person always remains discrete until the last moment where he reveals that he is a rampaging, psychopathic, cold blooded killer. 5) The innocent victims, of course, what story is complete without the sad tales of innocent live being slaughtered. One or two of these characters are always the ones who you first expect, and are always at the scene of the crime...how convenient.And Then There Were None is indeed one of the best books I have read.

Friday, October 11, 2019

The Ethics of the Media

The purpose of the media has become an ongoing question since the large amount of conflicts between the consumer and media. Why is the original purpose of the media so damn hard to figure out? It is time to confront this issue instead of blowing it off by saying, â€Å"We can never change the media, so why bother? † What kind of chickenshit statement is that?! If there are so many people with so much power, surely one of them realizes the downward spiral of the ethics of the media. I feel my sole purpose of this paper is to tell everyone my ideas and viewpoints on censoring the media. Ooooooo, censor. What a bad word that is when used in the same sentence with media. So many people believe censorship is a bad thing, but there is no other solution in stopping the â€Å"bad press. † When I sit back and look at the stories about stories that are bad and offending to someone, I realize something needs to be done. The media is out of control. True, there are many informing and needed stories, but, my god, how many times a day to we need to hear and read about how much money O. J. Simpson has to pay the family of Ronald Goldman? We, as consumers, need to sit back and ask ourselves, â€Å"What was the point of hearing or reading that story? Back to the censor issue. I, as an aspiring journalist, do not believe in total and complete censorship of the media, but also, as an aspiring journalist, I am embarrassed of some of the stories that are run, for instance, when the crime scene photos of Jon-Benet Ramsey were run in Globe magazine. Was there not anyone, an editor, a writer, or even a custodian at Globe who thought, â€Å"Uh, oh. These photos may get us into some trouble. † Was there not a single sole who had enough ethics to try and stop these pictures from being printed? This is where censorship comes in. If I could do anything in the world, I would first, stop world hunger, and second set up some guidelines and laws that the media must obey. Guidelines such as, no digging through peoples trash and no peeking in windows. Of course, we know that by law, there is to be no peeking in windows, or over fences, but there is no one at the editors desk to implicate these laws. There is supposed to be someone there to prevent these stories from running, but remember, their paycheck depends on how many copies are sold or how high the ratings are. This â€Å"censor person† needs to have a set wage. If there was someone to stop these types of occurrences, half of my problems with the media would be taken care of. This may sound like a lame solution, but we need to start somewhere. Obviously this is not a complete solution to these problems with the media, so the next step would be to start using the editors for weeding out the stories that are not giving some type of information that the consumer wants and needs to hear or read. This is also easier said than done. This solution also brings up questions like, how does the editor know what stories the consumer wants to hear or read about? That is the responsibility of the media. Let them take polls and give every effort to find out what we want. Journalism will only survive if it establishes a more valuable and clearly defined mission, (Morality of Mass Media, Ellen Hume. ) I could write a book about all the things I want to see changed in the media before I become a part of it, but I will not. There should be a line drawn so that the media can be punished for their wrongdoing. Many people agree that there should be a line drawn and like it or not, that line is called censorship. Our founding fathers did not want censorship on the media, but they probably did not think that the media would be doing such a crummy job. I do not want to say that all media is doing a bad job. Overall, they are doing a fairly good job, but there is still a large amount of dirty press that needs to be cleaned up.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Taxation Law Essay

1. The assessability or otherwise to Jino and Anna of the annual bonuses paid by Darling Bank to them. Consideration of the proximity of services or employment relationship, the importance of the donor’s motive and the status of gratuitous payments are relevant in determining whether the bonuses received are assessable income. We can determine that the bonuses satisfactorily fulfil the requirement that for the bonuses to be assessable they must â€Å"come in†. (tenant v smith) Natural incidents of employment will be income, because they arise from a service relationship and because they are an expected incident of the occupations. Kelly v DCT) Ultimately, it is the character of the payment in the hands of the recipient that is determinative (Scott) of income. The bonuses received by Jino and Anna were not mere gifts. The amount in Scott v FCT was a gift; it was gratuitous, not made in discharge of an obligation and not taken by the recipient as discharging an obligation and not income by ordinary concepts. The payments in Scott v FCT and Moore v Griffiths were ‘one-off’. The payments were in addition to entitlements under service agreements; the donor’s motive was to make a personal tribute and the payment was unexpected.While income generally exhibits recurrence, regularity and periodicity, it would be wrong to conclude they were necessary elements and that a ‘one-off’ payment in the nature of a ‘gift’ cannot be income. (demonstrated by Squatting Investment Co) In Moore v Griffiths, the bonus received was a testimonial or personal gift rather than a reward for services rendered by the taxpayer in the course of his employment. The payment had no foreseeable element of recurrence, and there was no knowledge or expectation on the taxpayer’s part that the payment would be made as a reward for rendering his services.A bonus payment is ordinary income for the purposes of subsection 6-5(2) of the ITAA 1997, which provides that the assessable income of a resident taxpayer includes ordinary income derived directly or indirectly from all sources, whether in or out of Australia, during the income year. The initial presumption, prima facie, a payment from taxpayer to recipient is not income (Hayes v FCT) may be displaced if in substance and reality the payment was a product of services.Ordinary income is typically regarded as including salary and wages and fees connected with employment or provision of services; the critical element being the connection with an earning activity. Amounts derived from employment or the provision of services are income. In FCT v Dixon, the amount taxpayer received was assessable because the receipts were of an income character, and the amount was an expected periodical payment arising out of circumstances, and also because it formed part of the receipts upon which he depended for regular expenditure.Similarly, the bonuses Jino and Anna received fulfille d 3 critical elements in FCT v Dixon; the payment was periodical, incidental to employment and relied upon for regular expenditure. In FCT v Harris, payments were unrelated to the length or quality of service, and were periodic yet unpredictable. Hence, they were unassessable as the critical elements in Dixon’s case were absent in Harris. In FCT v Kelly, the prize money the footballer received was held to be payments as income. Kelly was aware that the prize would be offered,S15-2 sets out that allowances and other things provided in respect of employment or services can be included in your assessable income. S15-2(1) states that â€Å"assessable income includes the value to you of all allowances, gratuities, compensation, benefits, bonuses and premiums provided†¦ in respect of†¦ any employment of or services rendered†. Hence, if the bonuses are consequently not considered ordinary income, it will still be regarded assessable under s15-2 as the amount that is assessable as ordinary income under s6-5 is not included in assessable income under s15-2(3).The key issue to consider is the ‘connection with earning activity’. It was for ‘work throughout the year’. The $100,000 bonuses can therefore be included in assessable income under s. 15-2 as a reward for personal exertion, even though the bonuses were unexpected and not relied upon by Jino and Anna (Moore). The bonuses were recurring, incidental to employment, of an ordinary kind. (Scott) There is direct nexus with employment; FCT v Cooke & Sherden is irrelevant because the holidays received did not represent income.There was no entitlement to alternative compensation if the holidays were not taken, and it was also not convertible into money. 2. Whether Jino and Anna are entitled to deductions for interest paid on the amount they redraw from their loan on the Darling Point property to partly finance their investment in the King Street property. ITAA97 S8. 1 (1) p rovides that you can deduct from your assessable income any loss or outgoing to the extent that â€Å"it is incurred in gaining or producing your assessable income†.Hence, Jino and Anna will be entitled to deductions for interest paid on the amount they redraw from their loan â€Å"to the extent† they are using it to finance their investment in the King Street property. Interest is characterised by the use of the funds; the fact that the original loan was for the Darling Point property is irrelevant. Consideration must be given to the redraw facility, that any fund used from the redraw is used to produce assessable income or for the business, and the interest on the portion of the fund will be deductible to that extent.In FCT v Munro, the deduction for interests were not permitted under s. 8-1 ITAA97. It was held that the â€Å"deductibility of interest depends on the purpose for which the principal is borrowed, a deduction in interest is not permitted when the borrow ed money is used for a purpose whereby no income is produced, even if the money is borrowed on the security of rent producing property†. The commissioner disallowed the taxpayer’s claim for deductions, on the basis that the borrowed moneys had not been applied exclusively to produce assessable income.The borrowed money had been applied for the benefit of the sons and hence interest was not incurred in gaining assessable income. Conversely, the purpose for which the principal amount of $400,000 Jino and Anna borrowed was for an investment in property that would produce rent. The fact that the Darling Point property was used as security for the loan as it was withdrawn from the ‘repayment redraw’ facility for residential property is irrelevant. Hence, Jino and Anna should be entitled to deductions for the 6% interest paid on the $100,000 withdrawal from the redraw facility.Steele v FCT considers whether there is sufficient nexus of residence with income produ ction; interest incurred before assessable income is derived is deductible if there is. It was established that the meaning of ‘assessable income’ in the first limb of s51(1) is summarised in Fletcher & Ors v FCT (1991) 173 CLR. Assessable income is to be â€Å"construed as an abstract phrase which refers not only to assessable income derived in that or in some other tax year but also to assessable income which the relevant outgoing ‘would be expected to produce’†¦Ã¢â‚¬ .The 6% interest withdrawn from their loan is incurred before assessable income is derived hence is deductible. 3. Appropriate tax treatment of the lump sum payout to Thomas from both Jino and Anna’s perspective and from Thomas’s perspective From Jino and Anna’s Perspective TR 2005/6 1. This Ruling explains the circumstances where it is considered that: (a) a lease surrender receipt is assessable income under section 6-5 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997 (ITAA 1997); and (b) a lease surrender payment is deductible under section 8-1 of the ITAA 1997. . This Ruling also addresses the application of the provisions of the ITAA 1997 covering capital gains and capital losses (CGT). The first issue to consider is first considering the general deduction provision s8-1. Although the lump sum payout passes the 1st positive limb, based on Sun Newspaper Ltd v FCT, we can establish that the payout is not of revenue but of a capital nature. There are 3 matters to consider in determining whether the payout is on revenue or capital account. Footnote: pg 446 of casebook) Parallel to the features of transactions of the expenditure in Sun Newspaper, [1] (a) the payout was of a large sum intended to remove competition for Tony, (b) the payout was recurrent in the sense that the risk of a competitor arising must always be theoretically present, (c) the chief object of the †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Considering the general deduction provision s8-1, if the payout was reve nue, it would be deductible. However, the capital nature of the payout fails the negative non-capital requirement under s8-1.As Jino and Anna are not â€Å"carrying on a business of gaining or producing assessable income† (s8-1(b)) in leasing out the shop, it is still a capital gains tax and we must consider further provisions for specific deductions for capital expenditure. Jino and Anna were not obliged to lease the shop to receive rent because Thomas was already willing and happy to pay fixed rental of $3,500 per month for 5 years. Therefore, the $5000 is not deductible because it is not a loss, but rather a result of voluntary action. If it were a loss incurred, then the amount would be deductible.Second, for the lump sum payment to be deductible, the expense has to be related to producing assessable income. Herald and Weekly Times Ltd v FCT derives the notion ‘incurred’, as â€Å"the expenditure (legal fees) incurred by the taxpayer was wholly and exclusive ly expended in gaining or producing its assessable income and was therefore deductible under s23(1)(a). † Since the $5000 payment was to terminate Thomas’s lease and provide an opportunity for Jino and Anna to obtain $500 more in monthly rent, it can be seen as being incurred to gain assessable income from the new lessee Tony.Consequently, the expense of $5,000 is deducted by straight line method over five years. Thomas’s Perspective The amount paid to Thomas can either be capital in nature where â€Å"the lease formed part of the profit-yielding-structure of the lessee’s business† or it could be income which â€Å"arises in the course of business activity†. If the compensation payment lead to the cancellation of business leaving the profit-making structure permanently impaired, then it constitutes as a capital gain. Considering Heavy Minerals (1966) Californian Oil ProductsIn Van den Bergs Ltd v Clark (1935), the House of Lords held that â⠂¬Å"the sum received by the taxpayer†¦ on the termination of the arbitration and in consideration of the taxpayer’s consent to termination†¦ was a capital receipt and shouldn’t be taken into account in computing the taxpayer’s liability to tax. † 4. Appropriate tax treatment of the waiver of Tony’s first month’s rental from both Jino and Anna’s perspective and from Tony’s perspective Jino and Anna’s perspective No money involved – agreement Not meant to pay each other money. Tony didn’t pay out any rent and anna didn’t receive.No money exchanged therefore first month no assessable income as no exchange. For tony didn’t pay out any rent therefore no deduction Tony’s perspective Orica Reduction in expenditure can not be income according to ordinary concepts assessable under s25(1). There was no profit or gain made as a result of the taxpayer entering into arrangements which was à ¢â‚¬Ëœa singular transaction, not part of the regular means whereby the taxpayer obtained returns’. Lees & Leech Even if it was assumed the payment received by taxpayer constituted a profit or gain, the payment was not received by it in the ordinary course of carrying on its business.TR 93/6 1. This Ruling is concerned with those arrangements which are used to reduce the interest payable on a customer's loan account. These are commonly referred to as ‘interest offset arrangements' but are called ‘loan account offset arrangements' in this Ruling. These products are generally structured so that no interest is derived by the customer and therefore the customer is not liable to pay income tax in respect of the benefit arising from the account. This Ruling: †¢ outlines the manner in which acceptable loan account offset arrangements usually operate; and †¢ xplains the limits on acceptable arrangements. 5. The appropriate tax treatment of the early repayment pe nalty from both Jino and Anna’s perspective and from Tony’s perspective TR 93/7 A penalty interest payment is generally deductible under subsection 51(1) if: (a) the loan moneys were borrowed for the purpose of gaining or producing assessable income or for use in a business carried on for that purpose; and (b) the payment is made in order to rid the taxpayer of a recurring obligation to pay interest on the loan, where such interest would itself have been deductible if incurred.Where the repayment of loan moneys borrowed for the purpose of producing assessable income is secured by mortgage, penalty interest payable on an early repayment which effects a discharge of the mortgage will generally be deductible under section 67A. 5. Penalty interest is not expenditure incurred in borrowing money so as to be deductible under section 67. 6. Where penalty interest is paid upon repayment of a loan incidental to the disposal of an asset, the payment is not taken into account unde r Part IIIA of the ITAA in calculating the amount of any capital gain or capital loss arising on the disposal.Subsection 51(1) provides that: â€Å"all losses and outgoings to the extent to which they are incurred in gaining or producing the assessable income, or are necessarily incurred in carrying on a business for the purpose of gaining or producing such income, shall be allowable deductions except to the extent to which they are losses or outgoings of capital, or are of a capital, private or domestic nature, or are incurred in relation to the gaining or production of exempt income. 9. Generally speaking, provided loan moneys were borrowed for the purpose of gaining or producing assessable income or for use in a business carried on for that purpose, penalty interest payable on early repayment of the loan will, unless it is of a capital nature, qualify for deductibility under subsection 51(1). This will commonly involve borrowings used to acquire an income-producing asset or to p rovide working capital to operate a business. 10.In the case of such borrowings, the central issue is whether penalty interest payments are â€Å"losses or outgoings of capital, or of a capital†¦ nature†. If so, then they will not be deductible under subsection 51(1), but may be deductible under sections 67 or 67A. 11. We do not consider that so-called penalty interest is, in fact, in the nature of interest. This is so even if the loan agreement uses the term â€Å"penalty interest†. The description of an item used in any relevant agreement is not conclusive of its character (refer FC of T v. Sth. Aust.Battery Makers Pty. Ltd. (1978) 140 CLR 645 at 655; 78 ATC 4412 at 4417; 8 ATR 879 at 884 per Gibbs ACJ and Cliffs International Inc. v. FC of T (1979) 142 CLR 140 at 148; 79 ATC 4059 at 4064; 9 ATR 507 at 512 per Barwick CJ). To call a payment â€Å"interest† does not conclusively determine that it in fact answers that description. Nor does it prevent the pa yment from being an outgoing of a capital nature. 12. Interest is considered to be â€Å"compensation to the lender for being kept out of the use and enjoyment of the principal sum†: see FC of T v.The Myer Emporium Ltd. (1987) 163 CLR 199 at 218; 87 ATC 4363 at 4371; 18 ATR 693 at 702). Penalty interest is not paid for the use of the lender's money. It is paid in respect of a period when the borrower has repaid the loan and does not have the use of the money (refer R. W. Parsons, Income Taxation in Australia at para. 6. 330) 13. The critical factor in determining the essential character of an outgoing is the character of the advantage sought by the making of the expenditure ( Sun Newspapers Ltd. v. FC of T (1938) 61 CLR 337 at 363 per Dixon J).Whether an outgoing is capital or revenue in nature â€Å"depends on what the expenditure is calculated to effect from a practical and business point of view† ( Hallstroms Pty. Ltd. v. FC of T (1946) 72 CLR 634 at 648 per Dixon J ). 14. As a penalty interest payment is a cost directly attributable to obtaining early repayment of a loan, the question to be answered is effectively: â€Å"what, from a practical and business point of view, is the advantage sought from an early repayment of the loan? † This is a question of fact to be answered on a case by case basis. 5. Where the advantage sought is the release from the contractual obligation to incur a recurrent liability to pay interest on the loan, and such interest would itself have been deductible, then the penalty interest payment is on revenue account ( FC of T v. Marbray Nominees Pty. Ltd. 85 ATC 4750; (1987) 17 ATR 93, Metals Exploration Ltd. v. FC of T 86 ATC 4505; (1987) 17 ATR 786). Such a payment does display certain capital indicia in terms of the tests enunciated by Dixon J. in the Sun Newspapers case (supra); i. e. t is a once-and-for-all type lump sum which eliminates a threatened disadvantage and thus produces a benefit of a lasting char acter for the taxpayer. Nevertheless, where the initiating cause for early repayment of the loan is a saving in future interest outlays, the payment is essentially revenue in character. 16. On the other hand, where the penalty interest payment is paid effectively as a price to rid the taxpayer of a burdensome capital asset or is otherwise incidental to the realisation of an asset, then it will generally be on capital account. 17.Where repayment of a loan is secured by mortgage, penalty interest payable on early repayment may be deductible under section 67A. Section 67A provides a deduction for expenditure (excluding principal or interest payments) incurred in connection with the discharge of a mortgage securing repayment of moneys borrowed for the purpose of producing assessable income. Unlike subsection 51(1), deductibility is not affected by whether the expenditure is capital or revenue in nature. As previously discussed, so-called penalty interest is not, in fact, in the nature o f interest, and is therefore not excluded on his basis from deductibility under section 67A. 18. Borrowing expenses which are on capital account and for that reason not deductible under subsection 51(1) may qualify for deduction under section 67. However, penalty interest is not â€Å"expenditure incurred†¦ in borrowing money† for section 67 purposes. These words, in the context of section 67(1), refer to a â€Å"cost† of borrowing; i. e. expenditure incurred in relation to the actual establishment of the relevant loan. The liability to pay penalty interest is first incurred after the money is borrowed, and is therefore not incurred in borrowing the money.The payment is not made pursuant to a contractual obligation which was incurred at the time of borrowing as an incident of establishing the loan (refer Ure v. FC of T 81 ATC 4100; (1981) 11 ATR 484). 19. Where penalty interest is paid upon repayment of a loan incidental to the disposal of an asset, the payment is not taken into account for Part IIIA purposes in calculating the amount of any capital gain or capital loss arising on the disposal. The payment would not be included in the cost base of the asset under section 160ZH.In particular, it is not within the categories of â€Å"incidental costs† of acquisition or disposal in subsections 160ZH(5) or 160ZH(7), and, as it is not in the nature of â€Å"interest† (see paragraphs 11 and 12 above), is not a â€Å"non-capital cost† under subsection 160ZH(6A). 22. Anne obtains a loan from a financial institution to purchase a rental property. Within the term of the loan Anne decides to sell the property. This requires her to repay the loan in order to discharge a mortgage over the property which secures the loan. In paying out the loan early Anne incurs a penalty interest payment. 3. The repayment of the loan, and the associated incurrence of the penalty payment, is a necessary incident of the sale of the property. A payment so connected to the realisation of a capital asset will be on capital account. The payment is therefore not deductible under subsection 51(1). The payment will, however, qualify for deductibility under section 67A as expenditure incurred in discharging a mortgage. 6. The CGT effects for Jino and Anna of the sales of the Darling Point apartment and of the King Street Property ———————–