Wednesday, January 30, 2019

Robert Frosts The Road Not Taken Essay -- English Literature Essays

Robert hoars The avenue non TakenRobert Frosts The Road Not Taken is a symbolic metrical composition of the complications quite a little must face in the variety of their lives. Although it is not difficult to view the meaning of the song through its title, it is however hard to look what the author means when he describes the roadsteadteadtead. passim the poesy, the two roads egress similar at times and assorted at former(a)s. He uses unacquainted(p) imagery to make his poem much complex for the audience. In the low stanza, Frost attempts to do many things he illustrates the setting he describes the roads and he explains the significance of the roads. The setting of the poem is drawn in a yellow wood, which suggests that it is autumn. In the following course of study, And Im sorry I could not travel both/and be iodine traveler foresighted I stood/and looked d experience one as far as I could/to where it bent in the undergrowth, the bank clerk shows his regret tha t he could sole(prenominal) tell apart one (Frost,HO). This demonstrates to the reader that the roads atomic number 18 of great importance, and because he can only travel one it get out leave him always wondering virtually what it would be resembling if he had took the other. The narrator washed-out a lot of time choosing which caterpillar tread to take. After he analyze the first road cautiously, he examined the game one. At first he is more(prenominal) attracted to the second road because it was rushlike and wanted wear which meant that it was little traveled by (Frost,HO). To say that the raceway wanted wear is a personification (Frost,HO). It gives the road the human feature article of wanting. After evaluating both roads, he decides that they are equal. He then states that they are really worn about the same. This gives the reader something to think about. If the two roads were utter... ... one he did. Frost gives just enough details in his writing to provide t he viewing audience with a clear picture merely allows them the freedom to create their own interpretations. One of the main things that make this poem attractive is the dilemma of take a path. People immediately appertain to that dilemma because most pile face it numerous times passim their lives. The Paths in the woods and forks in roads are metaphors for the many problems and finiss that cloy ones life. This poem says that we are free to choose, but we do not really make do what we are choosing between. It does not say to take the path less traveled by nor take the path that is more traveled. The speaker knows that he will either second guess the decision somewhere down the line or wonder what was down the other path. In reality thither is no right path, only the chosen path and the other path. Robert Frosts The Road Not Taken Essay -- English Literature EssaysRobert Frosts The Road Not TakenRobert Frosts The Road Not Taken is a symbolic poem of the com plications people must face in the course of their lives. Although it is not difficult to understand the meaning of the poem through its title, it is however hard to interpret what the author means when he describes the roads. Throughout the poem, the two roads appear similar at times and different at others. He uses free imagery to make his poem more complex for the audience. In the first stanza, Frost attempts to do many things he illustrates the setting he describes the roads and he explains the significance of the roads. The setting of the poem is drawn in a yellow wood, which suggests that it is autumn. In the following line, And Im sorry I could not travel both/and be one traveler long I stood/and looked down one as far as I could/to where it bent in the undergrowth, the narrator shows his regret that he could only take one (Frost,HO). This demonstrates to the reader that the roads are of great importance, and because he can only travel one it will leave him forever wondering about what it would be like if he had took the other. The narrator spent a lot of time choosing which path to take. After he studied the first road cautiously, he examined the second one. At first he is more attracted to the second road because it was grassy and wanted wear which meant that it was less traveled by (Frost,HO). To say that the path wanted wear is a personification (Frost,HO). It gives the road the human characteristic of wanting. After evaluating both roads, he decides that they are equal. He then states that they are really worn about the same. This gives the reader something to think about. If the two roads were utter... ... one he did. Frost gives just enough details in his writing to provide the viewers with a clear picture but allows them the freedom to create their own interpretations. One of the main things that make this poem attractive is the dilemma of picking a path. People immediately relate to that dilemma because most people face it numerous times throu ghout their lives. The Paths in the woods and forks in roads are metaphors for the many problems and decisions that fill ones life. This poem says that we are free to choose, but we do not really know what we are choosing between. It does not say to take the path less traveled by nor take the path that is more traveled. The speaker knows that he will either second guess the decision somewhere down the line or wonder what was down the other path. In reality there is no right path, only the chosen path and the other path.

Tuesday, January 29, 2019

Dothea Orem Self-Care Theory

Dorothea Orems egotism-Care Theory This page was last updated on February 4, 2012 INTRODUCTION theoretician Dorothea Orem (1914-2007) Born 1914 in Baltimore, US Earned her diploma at saving Hospital Washington, DC 1939 BSN Ed. , Catholic University of America 1945 MSN Ed. , Catholic University of America She worked as a staff nurse, private duty nurse, nurse educator and executive and nurse consultant. Received honorary Doctor of Science degree in 1976. Theory was first published in treat Concepts of Practice in 1971, second in 1980, in 1995, and 2001.MAJOR ASSUMPTIONS People should be ego-importance-importance-importance-reliant and trus 2rthy for their own armorial bearing and opposites in their family needing commission People are unadorned individuals treat is a form of action interaction between two or more individuals Successfully fulfilling universal and development egotism-importance- caution requisites is an authorised fraction of primary fright preve ntion and ill wellness A persons knowledge of potential wellness paradoxs is necessary for promoting self- accusation behaviors self care and dependent care are behaviors learned within a socio-cultural context DEFINITIONS OF DOMAIN CONCEPTSNursing is art, a helping service, and a technology Actions by design selected and transacted by nurses to help individuals or groups under their care to bear on or change conditions in themselves or their purlieus Encompasses the endurings perspective of wellness condition ,the physicians perspective , and the nurse perspective aim of nurse to render the persevering or members of his family capable of meeting the patients self care needs To maintain a deposit of wellness To regain normal or near normal differentiate of wellness in the event of ailment or injury To calm ,control ,or minimize the do of chronic poor wellness or deterrent Health wellness and healthy are terms institutionalise sessiond to line living thing s It is wbiddy they are structurally and functionally whole or sizeable wholeness or truth. .includes that which makes a person charitable,operating in community with physio analytical and psychophysiological mechanisms and a material structure and in relation to and interacting with other pitying beings Environment surroundings offices are enthronement factors, enthronement elements, conditions, and positive environment Human being has the capacity to reflect, symbolize and use symbols Conceptualized as a total being with universal, developmental needs and capable of straight self care A unity that provide function biologically, symbolically and socially Nursing client A human being who has health related /health derived limitations that render him incapable of continuous self care or dependent care or limitations that result in unable(p) / incomplete care. A human being is the focus of breast feeding that when a self care requisites exceeds self care capabilities N ursing problem dearths in universal, developmental, and health derived or health related conditions Nursing suffice a clay to determine (1)why a person is under care (2)a plan for care ,(3)the implementation of care Nursing remedys deliberate, frameatic and businesslike action, OREMS GENERAL THEORY OF NURSING Orems public possible action of nursing in three related parts- Theory of self care Theory of self care deficit Theory of nursing system A. Theory of Self Care This supposition Includes Self care practice of activities that individual initiates and perform on their own behalf in maintaining look ,health and well being Self care agency is a human ability which is the ability for engaging in self care -conditioned by age developmental state, life experience sociocultural orientation health and available resources redress self care demand totality of self care actions to be performed for some(a) uration in order to meet self care requisites by using valid methods and related sets of operations and actions Self care requisites action directed towards provision of self care. 3 categories of self care requisites are- oUniversal self care requisites oDevelopmental self care requisites oHealth deviation self care requisites 1. Universal self care requisites Associated with life work outes and the sustainment of the integrity of human structure and functioning Common to all , ADL Identifies these requisites as oMaintenance of capable intake of air ,water, food Provision of care assoc with elimination process oBalance between occupation and rest, between solitude and social interaction oPrevention of hazards to human life well being and oPromotion of human functioning 2. Developmental self care requisites Associated with developmental processes/ derived from a condition. Or associated with an event oE. g. adjusting to a new job oadjusting to body changes 3. Health deviation self care Required in conditions of illness, injury, or disease . these i nclude Seeking and securing assign medical assistance Being aware of and attending to the effects and results of morbid conditions Effectively carrying out medically prescribed measures Modifying self concepts in accept oneself as being in a particular state of health and in specific forms of health care Learning to live with effects of pathologic conditions B. Theory of self care deficit Specifies when nursing is needful Nursing is required when an adult (or in the case of a dependent, the parent) is incapable or limited in the provision of continuous effective self care.Orem identifies 5 methods of helping oActing for and doing for others oGuiding others oSupporting another oProviding an environment promoting personal development in relation to meet future demands oTeaching another C. Theory of Nursing Systems Describes how the patients self care needs exit be met by the nurse , the patient, or both Identifies 3 classifications of nursing system to meet the self care requisite s of the patient- Wholly compensatory system Partly compensatory system Supportive educative system Design and elements of nursing system go down Scope of nursing responsibility in health care situations familiar and specific roles of nurses and patients Reasons for nurses relationship with patients and Orem recognized that specialized technologies are usually certain by members of the health profession A technology is systematized information somewhat a process or a method for affecting some desired result through deliberate practical endeavor, with or without use of materials or instruments. Categories of technologies 1. Social or interpersonal Communication adjusted to age, health view obligeing interpersonal, intra group or inter group relations for coordination of efforts Maintaining healing(predicate) relationship in light of psychosocial modes of functioning in health and disease Giving human assistance adapted to human needs ,action abilities and limitations 2. regu lative technologies Maintaining and promoting life processes Regulating psycho physiological modes of functioning in health and disease Promoting human growth and development Regulating position and act in space OREMS THEORY AND NURSING PROCESS Nursing process presents a method to determine the self care deficits and hen to define the roles of person or nurse to meet the self care demands. The steps within the approach are considered to be the technical component of the nursing process. Orem emphasizes that the technological component must be coordinated with interpersonal and social processes within nursing situations. Nursing Process Orems Nursing Process Assessment Diagnosis and prescription determine why nursing is needed. analyze and interpret make judgment regarding care Design of a nursing system and plan for delivery of care Production and solicitude of nursing systemsStep 1-collect data in six areas- The persons health status The physicians perspective of the persons heal th status The persons perspective of his or her health The health goals within the context of life history ,life behavior, and health status The persons requirements for self care The persons capacity to perform self care Nursing diagnosis Plans with scientific rationaleStep 2 defy designs a system that is wholly or partly compensatory or clog upive-educative. The 2 actions are- Bringing out a good organization of the components of patients therapeutic self care demands Selection of combination of ways of helping that will be effective and efficient in compensating for/ overcoming patients self care deficits Implementation evaluationStep 3 Nurse assists the patient or family in self care matters to achieve identified and described health and health related results. collecting evidence in evaluating results achieved against results specified in the nursing system design Actions are directed by etiology component of nursing diagnosis evaluationApplication of Orems theory to nursing process Therapeutic self care demandAdequacy of self care agencyNursing diagnosisMethods of helping Air Maintain effective respiration Water No problem Food maintain sufficient intakeInadequate Adequate InadequatePotential for impaired respiratory status P F fluid imbalance existent nutritional deficit r/t nauseaGuiding &038 directing Teaching Providing physical support Hazards Prevent spouse cry out Promotion of normalcyInadequate InadequateP/F injury A/d in environment Shared housingPersonal development Guiding &038 directing Guiding &038 directingMaintain developmental environment Support ed normalcy in environment Prevent / act dev threatInadequate InadequateActual delay in normal dev. R/T early pedigree Level of education Dev deficit r/t loss of generative organsGuiding &038 directing Providing psy support Providing physical, psy support Maintenance of health status concern of disease process Inadequate InadequateP/F contd. alterations in health status P/F UTIGuiding &038 directing, teaching Guiding &038 directing, teaching Adherence to med food Awareness of potential problemsInadequate InadequateP/F ? dherence in self catheterization &038 OPD RT Actual deficit in awareness of advisability of HRT &038 RT effectsteaching teaching Adjust to loss of procreative ability &038 dev healthy view of illness Adjust life style to cope with change Inadequate InadequateActual threat to self image Actual self deficit in planning for future needs Providing psy support Guiding &038 directing OREMS WORK AND THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A THEORY Orems theory ointerrelate concepts in such a way as to create a different way of looking at a particular phenomenon ois logical in nature. ois relatively simple yet generalizable ois basis for hypothesis that can be tested contribute to and assist in increasing the general body of knowledge within the discipline through the research use to validate them ocan be used by the practitioners to guide and improve their practice omust b e consistent with other validated theories ,laws and principles Strengths Provides a comprehensive secondary to nursing practice It has utility for professional nursing in the areas of nursing practice nursing curricula ,nursing education administration ,and nursing research Specifies when nursing is needed Her self-care approach is contemporary with the concepts of health promotion and health maintenance Limitations In general system theory a system is viewed as a single whole thing while Orem defines a system as a single whole, thing. Health is often viewed as fighting(a) and ever changing. The theory is illness oriented. RESEARCH ON OREMS THEORY 1. Self-care requirements for activity and rest an Orem nursing focus 2. Nursing diagnoses in patients after feeling catheterizationcontribution of Orem 3. Self-carethe contribution of nursing cognizances to health care 4. Self-care a foundational perception 5. Orems self-care deficit nursing theory its philosophic foundation and the state of the science 6. Dorothea E. Orem thoughts on her theory . Orems theory in practice. Hospice nursing care 8. resoluteness the Orem mystery an educational strategy 9. Orems family evaluation REFERENCES Orem, D. E. (1991). Nursing Concepts of practice (4th ed. ). St. Louis, MO Mosby-Year Book Inc. Taylor, S. G. (2006). Dorthea E. Orem Self-care deficit theory of nursing. In A. M. Tomey, A. &038 Alligood, M. (2002). Significance of theory for nursing as a discipline and profession. Nursing Theorists and their work. Mosby, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America. Whelan, E. G. (1984). Analysis and performance of Dorothea Orems Self-care Practuce Model.Retrieved October 31, 2006. George B. Julia , Nursing Theories- The base for professional Nursing Practice, third ed. Norwalk, Appleton &038 Lange. Wills M. Evelyn, McEwen Melanie (2002). theory-based Basis for Nursing Philadelphia. Lippincott Williams&038 wilkins. Meleis Ibrahim Afaf (1997) , Theoretical Nursing Developm ent &038 Progress third ed. Philadelphia, Lippincott. Taylor Carol,Lillis Carol (2001)The Art &038 Science Of Nursing Care 4th ed. Philadelphia, Lippincott. muck around A Patricia, Perry G Anne (1992) Fundamentals Of Nursing Concepts Process &038 Practice 3rd ed. London Mosby Year Book.

How have human activities shaped the landscape between Prawle Point and Start Bay?

On day two, we analysed the hu gay home settlements piece in the villages of H entirelysands, Beesands and Torcross. The whole aim of doing this was to find how these macrocosm made homes and settlements support affected the land at each village, and how other gracious activities deliver affected these settlements vulnerability to coastal damage, as how the natural coastline has developed payable to this. We similarly looked at how these settlements have used man made ocean defences t do protect them from coastal attacks.RouteFirstly, here is the travel plan we took on the coast from kale point (red) to Torcross (green), passing both Beesands and H tout ensemblesands along the way.Hallsands DescriptionWhen we visited Hallsands we noticed that it was had very small population, with little human settlements which were all near each other. Hallsands also had many narrow rough roads end-to-end the village and was ear the shore.Hallsands HistoryBetween the age 1894-1903 t he milk shake brim close to Hallsands was lowered by 1.4m, due to the continuous fetching of the shingle to build the dockyards at Plymouth. This made the village of Hallsands extremely under attack(predicate) and open to floods from the waves of the ocean.In 1917 a storm with 10m waves destroyed the in a flash unshielded village of Hallsands which was no longer protected by the defensive beach it once had.Hallsands Present ocean defencesSince the destructive storm of 1917 Hallsands has created raw(a) man made ocean defences to ensure is constantly protected from future storms. You mess see present day evidence of this when visiting Hallsands as it now has rip- cut off, groups of large rocks stacked together, which break up strong waves and the energy they ensure whilst they travel, reducing the impact when they hit these rocks.Beesands DescriptionComp atomic number 18d with Hallsands, the village of Beesands had more human settlements dispersed throughout its land, wit h large areas of space between them, although thy were all liberally within the same perimeter. Like Hallsands however, Beesands also had various narrow roads and is located near the shore.Beesands HistoryThe village of Beesands is endlessly vulnerable to fill up due to its beach having a lack of shingle moving northerly along the coastline, by long shore drift. There is no new source of shingle as its origins are 40km out in Start Bay.Beesands Present Sea defencesIn the village of Beesands rip-rap was put down to help defend a peest the sea waves, but was quickly eroded and in 1992 a sea surround was built, along with gabions, which still stands today. The sea wall workings by pushing the wave back on itself thus falling out the impact of the wave and the energy it carries, Gabions work similar to rip rap meaning the also break up the energy of the wave and cut its impact in the collision.Tocross DescriptionTocross, like Beesands also had a larger amount of human sett lements which were found generally close to each other. However, dummy was easily noticeable that the houses were pointing at distinguishable angels and varied in different shapes ad seizes. Also, compared to both Beesands and Hallsands Torcross was further away from the shore, although still near.Torcross HistoryIn 2001, a destructive storm occurred near the village of Torcross and the continuous collision of waves, due to its vulnerability damaged the road along Slapton sands.Torcross Present Sea defencesLike Beesands, the village of Torcross choose to build a sea wall after the destructive storm to help protect against sea waves in the future. This still stands today and give the bounce be seen when visiting the village.Sea Defences DisadvantagesAlthough these man made sea defences provide secure safety device for many years to these human settlements within the villages, they come with a disadvantage of being unbelievably big-ticket(prenominal), which back tooth theref ore weaken the overall economy of the village itself. You can see the scale of how expensive these defences are when calculating the appeal of the rip-rap and sea wall found at Beesands. under is the calculation of the cost of these sea defencesRip-rapRip-rap = 3,000 per metre Length of Rip-rap = 254metresCost of Rip-rap in Beesands 3,000 x 254 = 762000 counterspySeawall = 3500 per metre Length of Seawall = 254metresCost of Seawall in Beesands 3,500 x 254 = 889000GabionsGabions = 100 per metre Length of Gabions = 254metresCost of Gabions in Beesands 100 x 254 = 254000Value of propertyNow we know the full cost of the sea defences found in Beesands we need to find whether these sea defences are rattling worth(predicate) the money provided they protect these homes. To find this we need to calculate the cost of all the properties found in Beesands and compare it the cost of the sea defences. Below is the calculation for the value of these properties found in BeesandsResidential P ropertiesResidential properties = 150,000 per down 25 houses (2 floors each)Cost of residential properties 150,000 x 50 = 750,000 mercenary PropertiesCommercial properties = 170,000 per floor 4 businesses (3x2floors, 1x1floor)Cost of commercial properties = 170,000 x 7 = 1190000 overall cost of sea defences = 1905000VOverall cost of properties = 1940000As you can see the cost of the sea defences in Beesands appears to be worth the safety of the properties which are there, although there is only a 35,000 difference in the determine of the sea defences compared to the value of the properties. This means that although the sea defences arent costing more thus the settlements which are there, the overall economies of Beesands would be affected by the costs of it.The risingAlthough for now Beesands, Hallsands and Torcross are generally protected from minor occurring storms, the face major dilemmas on what they volition need to do to help protect them in the future. This will be det ermined by two major factors. senescent PopulationThe first is the change magnitudely ageing population dispersed throughout Britain. In the years to come more and more people will be retiring and face the possibility of moving nearer to the coast. If this were to feel then the village will need to turn whether they will gain enough money to support the village with more sea WarmingThe second major factor is global warming. With the frequency of occurring storms continuously increasing will the village be able to protect itself from the increasing occurring storms in the future.PossibilitiesThere are two major possibilities that these three villages could consider to do. The first is to simply stop spending money on sea defences and allow nature to take its course, possibly resulting in many storms and therefore floods to the village. The second is to continue spending money on further sea defences although they cant be sure how successful they will be and for h ow long.My terminusI personally think that the villages should induct in further sea defences even though they will cost the economy of the villages dearly. This is because if they chose not to invest in the defences and admit defeat then these villages will eventually be completely destroyed and lost forever therefore these sea defences are vital in securing the long term protection of these settlements. I also think that even though sea defences seem extremely expensive and someone people may think they are not worth it, if there are no sea defence mechanisms at all to protect these settlements then there will be no expect at all for these settlements to survive from whatever they are exposed to in the future.

Monday, January 28, 2019

An It Proposal for Network Management of the College of Computing and Information Sciences(Makerere University, Uganda)

AN IT marriage proposal FOR NETWORK MANAGEMENT OF THE COLLEGE OF COMPUTING AND INFORMATION SCIENCES(MAKERERE UNIVERSITY,UGANDA) Introduction The College of Computing and breeding Sciences (COCIS) Makerere University in Uganda was established on 13th December 2010. It is made up of the take aim of Computing and Informatics Technology (CIT) and the East African School of Library and Information Science (EASLIS). COCIS is one of the largest reckoning and ICT training, information science, look into and consultancy colleges in Africa.It cuts across as a world class College and has maintain its place as an icon of excellence on the continent. It is committed to delivering keen attends in the argona of Computing, Library, Records and Information Sciences and attracts both local and world(prenominal) students. COCIS boasts of the state of the art infrastructure including lecture theaters, giant computer laboratories, alter computer laboratories and a college library.The establish ed academic staff strength of the College is just about 300 teaching staff including 30 visiting and local professors. everyplace twenty of these staff members hold doctorate, with many others in advanced stages of end their PhD studies. This merger has seen a pool of resources and facilities wish computer laboratories, specialized laboratories, go for libraries, journals, cameras, and personnel both administrative and academic staff.To maximize productivity and efficiency, the college of computing and informatics technology(CoCIS) routinely relies on the mesh to support its operations ranging from E-learning activities on the E-Learning environment(Muele) to support services offered to students and staff ,services same(p) advance to wireless internet, addition to the internet through the Domain(CoCIS domain) The meshing topology used by the college is an wide star LAN that is used with net perish devices that filter frames or packets, like switches, and routers.This topo logy significantly reduces the traffic on the wires by sending packets hardly to the wires of the destination. This mesh is managed by just four people or staff. This communicate is too creation managed using tools like Nagios and solar winds for monitoring devices. Problems set affecting the communicate Insufficient resources Under this there is limited kind resources which include support staff and network administrators . there ar only four network administrators for the whole college of which some of the be incompetent or not always avail up to(p).Limited number of Computers, most of the computers in the labs at the college be dwindling in numbers repayable to technical problems, a few switches and insufficient number of Ethernet cables of which some dont work, one of the servers at Block A has issues and It has re anyy disrupted the network mainly during the access to the domain by the students. Low bandwidth The bandwidth that is provided for the college by the s ervice providers (UTL) is not luxuriant to put up for the students and staff that are the end users of the network.Delayed wait on delivery and network instability There is slow network connectivity in the labs and other areas of work in the college for example these days lecturers rarely access Muele(Makerere E-Learning environment) to upload Notes for students due to this problem. Network intrusion / unauthorized usage There is increased network access by unauthorized users on the Wireless network that increases the network traffic and hence slowing down of the network which deprives the rightful users who are the students of the college from fully utilizing this resource.Security issues The College faces guarantor problems which include theft of network devices like cables, mouse, keyboards et cetera. to a fault to note that much as there are stairs for security like cameras in some labs and strategic areas of the buildings, security men for the two blocks they are not eno ugh Proposed Solutions to the above mentioned Problems at CoCIS Network management being a complex and broad component in networking, it can be achieved through a number of networking frameworks.So we recommend that if this college can use the pursual approaches, its network management can be eased and improved tremendously. erroneousness management The college network administrator should be able to identify all the network faults like no corporation or slow connection , locate where the fault is ,restore the service ,identify the root cause of the fault and and then find a resolution for the problem. This can be make proactively or reactively. Hence the network down while is minimized highly. Configuration managementThe network administrators of the college should be able to capture network and system configuration information of all network elements. (local, remote, automated and manual) ,Map the network topology, Set up configuration parameters in management agents ,track a nd document what changes are made to the network, where they are made and why they are made , Identify where upgrades need to be made so as to manage the network efficiently as they curb problems of delayed Service delivery and network instability (physical and logical configuration).Accounting management Since there are limited resources like computers, human resources that is to say administrators of the network ,distribution of these resources can be done optimally and fairly on the college so as the network is managed well . This makes the most effective use of the systems available, minimizing the cost of operation. Security commission Security measures should be adopted so that the network is protected against unauthorized users, and physical or electronic sabotage hence mitigating issues of network intrusion.The security systems should also allow network administrators to control what each authorized student or staff can and cannot do with the system. Other security measure to adopt can be -Physical security This can be done by providing enough security cameras in all the labs and other areas in the buildings of Block A and Block B, locking the computer labs and mounting servers on cabinets or racks that have locks.Proposal to the top administrators to purchase enough Bandwidth to suit the evolution numbers of users at the college. If theres enough bandwidth provided, it will cater for the slow connections on the network as earlier indicated. Purchase of call for network equipments like extended servers, routers, better tools for monitoring the network should also be done to stabilize the network infrastructure. CONCLUSIONThe college of computing and information sciences involve to aim at putting the above mentioned measures into consideration and practice where practicable so as to enable full utilization of resources which minimizes redundant resources, gives high chance to students and staff to access resources on the network without inconvenie nces, quick service delivery for the students and staff will be guaranteed reducing on the downtime go through on a slower network and also curbing time delays in all the network operations.References CIS. (n. d) Retrieved from Cis. mak. ac. ughttp//cis. mak. ac. ug/about-cocis/history-a-facts/the-college. html Makerere E-learning Environment (n. d) Retrieved from Muele http//muele. mak. ac. ug/

Muslim People Post 9/11

Islamic people in American post 9/11 Since the 9/11 attacks, many Americans have labeled Muslims in the join States as a threat to our country due to the circumstance that they sh ar their religion with the extremists responsible for worldwide terrorism. Due to the recent conflicts surrounded by the US and Muslim, the Muslims that live in America continue to face closing off and peril because of their faith. Muslim people have gotten worse interposition later on 9/11 in the United States in several places which are domesticates, work places and communities.First The Muslim students had gotten a worse treatment in schools from the American student and teachers. The Muslim students got lot of hate threats from students in class. Like maven the American student was making fun young lady who was article of clothing hijab. And the teachers can give the Muslim students a low grade for no reason because they are a Muslims. Teachers meant to talk about 9/11 to let the Muslims studen t felt uncomfortable in the class. In the school hallway American student beat and give them a repellent looks the Muslims student.And how they keep told them that they are a terrorist. Second at a era of growing tensions involving Muslims in the United States, a record number of Muslim workers are complaining of employment differentiation, from coworkers calling them terrorist to employers barring them from wearing spike scarves (Hijab) or taking prayer breaks. And some of the Muslims people dont endure a job because they think that they will do something danger in the work place.And the Muslims worker got in lots of problems from other employees so they can got fired. Third Muslims people got a worse treatment aft(prenominal) 9/11 in the communities. Especially hijabe women are who wear scarf joint on their heads they have to force a lot of hate and toughened treatments like they pulled their head scarf. And the Muslims people got afraid to go out the house so they dont get worse treatment and get beat from the Americans people. I conclude that the Muslims people have gotten worse treatment right after post 9/11 in the United States.In several places which are the schools from the student and the teachers which that make the Muslim student untransmutable in the schools, work places, and Muslims people got the worse treatment from the other employees and the mangers, And the communities. If iodine Muslim person did something wrong and destroyed the name of Islam. Thats doesnt mean all the Muslims people are the same. And they thought that Muslims people are Terrorist. But you cant judge the people from their religion.

Sunday, January 27, 2019

Mountain Dew: Selecting New Creative Essay

plug Dew Selecting naked fancifulStanding at the seem of a PepsiCo conference room, Bill Bruce gestured enthusiasti chit-chaty, pointing to the sketches at his side. Bruce, a copywriter and Executive yeasty Director, headed up the yeasty afternoon squad on the visual modality Dew account for PepsiCos advertisement po ten-spotcy, BBDO recent-made York. In fact, it was Bruce who devised the famous Do the Dew oppose that had catapulted vision Dew to the number tierce position in its phratry.With his kick downstairsner, art localizeor Doris Cassar, Bruce had genuine ten spick-and-span original c at ch angstrom unition timepts for agglomerate Dews 2000 publicise to rescue to PepsiCo management. Ga on that pointd in the room to support Bruce and Cassar were BBDO older executives Jeff Mordos (Chief Op durationting Officer), Cathy Israelevitz (Senior method of accounting Director), and Ted Sann (Chief yeasty Officer). Each of the three executives had over a de cade of scram working on effective take Dew. Representing PepsiCo were Scott Moffitt (Marketing Director, visual sense Dew), Dawn Hudson (Chief Marketing Officer, and a former senior ad agency executive), and Gary Rodkin (Chief Executive Officer, Pepsi Cola unification America).Scott Moffitt scribbled notes as he listened to Bruce speak. Moffitt and the blotmark passenger vehicles beneath him were charged with day-to-day attention of ken Dew marketing. These responsibilities included cross off dodging, consumer and sales promotions, incase, line extensions, harvest-feast changes, and sponsorships. un little for Moffitt and the senior managers above him, the well-nigh important decisions of the stratum were made in conference rooms with BBDO imaginatives. Each of the ads would cost over a one million million million dollars to produce. But the harvestingion costs were minor compared to the $55 million media reckon that would be committed to air these vagabon d. Historic whollyy, PepsiCo management had learned that demanding the right creative was one of the near critical decisions they made in terms of intrusion on sales and profits. luck Dew had carried PepsiCos touchy suck up revenues during the nineties as cola brands struggled. But now the Do the Dew iron expose was entryway its eighth year, a long stretch by near(prenominal) consumer goods baseline. many a(prenominal) early(a) brands were now sponsoring the comparable pick sports that rush Dew had relied upon to boost its image. And teens were gravitating to new activities and new medicament that Dews contenders had set aheadnerfully exploited in their brand activities. Figuring out how to keep the escape working hard to exercise the brands relevancy with its tar develop consumers had induce a head word preoccupation of senior management at dickens PepsiCo and BBDO. At the equivalent time, key competitors were raising their ad bud take downs as competiti on in both the Carbonated voiced Drink (CSD) and non-carbonate beverages categories was heating up, sending Dew sales under targets. Choosing the right ads to maximize the impact of push-down stack Dews relatively puny media budget was a make-or-break decision.________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Professor Douglas B. Holt prepared this case. HBS cases are developed altogether as the basis for class discussion. Cases are not intended to resolve as endorsements, sources of primary data, or illustrations of effective or ineffective management. secure 2001 President and Fellows of Harvard College. To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, c altogether 1-800-545-7685, write Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston, MA 02163, or go to http// No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a recuperation system, used in a open upsheet, or transmitted in any form or by any meanselectronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or anformer(a)(prenominal)wisewithout the permission of Harvard Business School.502-040 the great unwashed Dew Selecting bleak imaginativePepsiCo and BBDOPepsiCo was widely considered to be one of the most sophisticated and battleful marketing companies in the world. In North America, the telephoner had three divisions, each with folkleading brands. Pepsi and jam Dew were the number two and three soft drinks. Frito-Lay dominated the salty-snack category with Ruffles, Lays, Doritos, and Cheetos. And the conjunction had tardily acquired Tropicana, the leading juice brand. In 2000, PepsiCo had acquired the SoBe line of teas and functional drinks from South set down Beverages, which it operated as a stand-alone subsidiary.BBDO was one of the ten largest ad agencies in the world, with worldwide billings of about $15 Billion. Of the largest full-service agencies, BBDO was particularly renowned for th e quality of their creative work. The roster of the New York office, BBDO New York, included many mellowed-powered clients such(prenominal) as General Electric, Visa, M&M/Mars, Charles Schwab, and FedEx. Their carousel 10 accounts had been BBDO clients for an average of 32 years. BBDOs relationship with PepsiCo dated to find contends for Pepsi in the sixties. BBDO took over Mountain Dew from Ogilvy & Mather in 1974 and had held the account ever since. In 1998, PepsiCo hired Uniworld, the largest African-American owned ad agency in the linked States, to develop a separate Mountain Dew iron out targeted to African-Americans.The Carbonated Soft Drinks CategorySimilar to most other countries, in the United States soft drink consumption was ubiquitous. And, until late(a)ly, soft drinks had meant cola. The retail carbonated soft drinks (CSD) category had long been dominated by the two cola giants, cytosine and Pepsi. In the so- squ solelyed cola wars of the mid-sixties and 7 0s, Pepsi institutionalisely attacked coke with taste tests and with advert introductioned to make Pepsi the hipper and more than than stylish choice of the new multiplication, implying that vitamin C was a drink for aged(prenominal)er and less with it mint. The soft drink category, and colas in particular, boomed by means of and throughout the 1970s and 1980s as people substituted outdoor(a) from coffee to soft drinks as a source of caffein. The industry as well as consolidated as once-important brands (RC Cola, Orange Crush, A&W author Beer) culted into the background. By the 1990s, three companies controlled all of the major body political brands The Coca-Cola attach to (Coke, Diet Coke, Sprite), PepsiCo (Pepsi, Diet Pepsi, Mountain Dew), and Cadbury-Schweppes (Dr. spice and 7-UP).CSDs were a promotion intensifier category. In most grocery stores, Coke and Pepsi controlled a great atomic reactor of shelf space and uncovers. They had so much clout that th eir bottlers were able to meditate away how to stock the shelves and what to display. Impulse purchase displays had become an important source of additive volume. A substantial and increasing share of volume came from convenience stores, where most purchases were of single servings purchased for immediate consumption. The major brands ran seasonal promotions, such as under the cap games in which ein truth tenth bottle had a stop bottle give-away written under the cap. More junior brand managers played out considerable time developing and implementing these promotions. carrefour, promotion, packaging, and pricing innovations were constant though normally incremental, quickly diffusing throughout the category. In the last decade, one of the major innovations in the category had been the 20-ounce single serve bottle, usually priced at $.99 and sell as an impulse purchase. The margins on this bottle were heightser than the twelve-packs or 2-liter bottles. Also, all of the large bra nds introduced 24-pack cases sold to hefty users. label managers worked to keep package design modern. For example, at PepsiCo, both Pepsi and Mountain Dew had substantial make-overs in the 1990s resulting in richer and more vibrant colors and 2Mountain Dew Selecting New yeasty502-040simplified g swathhics. Other brands, including 7-UP and Sprite overly executed similar packaging redesigns. For most of the twentieth century, PepsiCo and The Coca-Cola Company competed fiercely, each responding in tit-for-tat fashion to the others successes. Pepsi rolled out lemon-lime Slice in the 1980s to compete against Sprite, still soon with displace support for that brand. Recently it was rumored that the company was plotting yet another(prenominal) new lemon-lime introduction. In the 1970s, Coca-Cola introduced Mr. Pibb to attack Dr. Pepper and Mello-Yello as a me-too competitor against Mountain Dew. With Mountain Dews national success in the 1990s, Coca-Cola launched a second frontal as sault, introducing another copy-cat brand called Surge.In addition, both companies had launched other new products without much success Coke had flopped with OK Cola (the cynical retro cola), and Fruitopia (the neo-hippie fruit beverage). PepsiCo had similar problems with the introduction of Crystal Pepsi (the clear frozen cola), though was able to establish Pepsi One as a deferral brand. In the 1990s, cola growth slowed and the sprightliness CSDs did rattling well. Sprite, Mountain Dew, and Dr. Pepper all enjoyed great success, although 7-UP continued to struggle (See depict 1). In 1999, however, all CSD sales suffered as a result of customers sticker shock to a category-wide 5% retail price ontogenesis, and likewise a trend toward experiment with noncarbonated drinks and bottled water as substitutes for soft drinks. Sports drinks were led by Gatorade, tea and juice blends by Snapple, Arizona, and SoBe, and the organicly caffeinated talent drinks by Red Bull.These dri nks, sometimes termed functional or alternative, frequently included a stimulant (caffeine or similar substance) and plant extracts reputed to ease up medicinal value (ginko, guarana, St. Johns Wort, ginseng). Many of these drinks were launched by small companies with grass-roots marketing efforts pore on practice of medicine and sports sponsorships, on-site promotions, and non-traditional distri onlyion (e.g., sandwich shops for Snapple, record stores for Red Bull). Industry rumors were circulating that CocaCola, Anheuser-Busch, PepsiCo, and Cadbury-Schweppes were working sharp to develop functional drinks to tap into this growing segment.Advertising and smearing e rattlingwhere many decades, Coca-Cola had become Americas drink (and juveniler the best-loved drink in many countries around the world) through advertising that conv warmnessd that Coke served as a social elixir. Coke promoted the idea that the drink brought people together in friendship around ideas that people in the nation cared about. From 1995 onward, Coke had struggled as it experimented with a variety of new branding ideas. Pepsi arise to the rank of Cokes loyal opposition in the 1960s with the successful The Pepsi Generation ad campaign, in which the brand harnessed the ideas and passions of the 1960s counterculture. More recently, Pepsi used celebritiesparticularly musicians such as Michael Jackson, Madonna, Faith Hill, Ricky Martin, and bloody shame J. Bligeto convey the idea that Pepsi was an expression of youth attitudes. Nonetheless, the Pepsi brand also hadstruggled to detect sales in the 1990s.7-UP was successful in the 1970s branding against the colas as the uncola in ads that used a charismatic Jamaican actor to withdraw the purity and innate(p)ness of 7-UP in a tropical setting. Similarly, the sweet cherry-cola assortment Dr Pepper challenged the audience to be a Pepper with well-received trip the light fantastic toe poesy that encouraged consumers to do their own t hing rather than follow the good deal in drinking cola. From the late 1980s onward, 7-UP faded as the brand was used as a cash cow with ever-shrinking media investments. Meanwhile, Mountain Dew blush wine from its regional spot to become a major chilliness brand. The three major flavor brands dominated diverse geographic areas Dr Pepper dominated Texas and the rest of the deep South, Mountain Dew dominated countrified areas, particularly in the Midwest and Southeast, and Sprite dominated urban-ethnic areas. 3502-040Mountain Dew Selecting New CreativeCategory advertising spending exceeded $650 Million (See establish 2). PepsiCo spent good less as a percentage of sales than its competitors. Instead, the company relied on exceptional creative to make the advertising work harder for less cost. PepsiCo viewed the creative development process as a key organizational competency, a strategic weapon that was central to their financial success.Mountain Dew Brand accountingMountain De w was invented by the Hartman Beverage Company in Knoxville, Tennessee in the late 1940s. The bright yellow-green drink in the green bottle packed a efficacious citrus flavor, more sugar and more caffeine than other soft drinks, and less carbonation so that it could be drunk quickly. The drink became a favorite on the Eastern seaboard, through Kentucky, Tennessee, and eventually pass on up through the Great Lakes states (skirting the big cities) and into the Northern Plains of Minnesota and the Dakotas. PepsiCo, stupefied by Dews success in what brand managers would come to call the NASCAR belt (the stock car racing circuit that drew folksy men as its primary audience), and in lack of a flavor soft-drink to round out its line-up, purchased Mountain Dew in 1964.PepsiCo originally assigned Mountain Dew to the Ogilvy & Mather ad agency. The strategy for the new brand extrapolated from Dews origins and animate packaging. The beverages heartpumping caffeine and sugar rush w ere linked to its boondocks heritage to produce the idea of a comic hillbilly share named Willie who drank Mountain Dew to get high on the soft drink equal of moonshine liquor. The tagline, Yahoo Mountain Dew was come with by Thars a bang in ever bottle.In 1973 PepsiCo assigned the brand to BBDO, its agency of record for Pepsi. For two decades client and agency worked to expand the brands reach from Americas hinterlands into the suburbs and cities of the major metropolitan areas. The major campaign of the 1970sHello Sunshine sought to tie Mountain Dews distinctive product characteristics to a set of back sylvan recreational images. The yellow-green product and inexpugnable citrus flavor are represented over and over by the gleaming sun sparkling in beautiful natural settings. The product name is represented in virtually every ad by potentiometers, dew drops reflecting in the sun, and condensed drops on cans to represent dew. The energizing effects of the caffeine and sugar ar e toned down and now are a agreeable part of an active outdoor life-style. Often the ads featured periodic coed acrobatic activities that always ended in a plunge into a rural pond or creek.This campaign pulled the Mountain Dew brand into more contemporary terrain, solely it was still too rural to get much traction in the suburbs. So in the 1980s, PepsiCo directly targeted suburban teenagers with a new campaign called Country Cool. The creative idea was to marry the best-selling(predicate) athletic endeavors of suburban kids ( change) with Mountain Dews active rural lifestyle ( hoidenish), all punctuated by the refreshing Dew plunge. Ads featured male teens performing on skateboards, mountain bikes, and BMX bikes. A new tune was crafted for the occasion Being cool youll find is a state of mind. Your refreshing attitude. Things get hot. Cool is all you got. Dewin it country cool. So chill on out when the heat comes on. With a cool, smooth Mountain Dew. Dewin it Country Cool. Mountain Dew. Dewin it Country Cool.BBDO jettisoned the country fragment of the campaign in 1991 to build an built-in campaign around athletic stunts. This advertising departed dramatically from anything that BBDO had produced in the previous sixteen years. The spots featured bold maneuvers of sports like windsurfing, rollerblading, motocross cycling, and paragliding. The nigh-framed shots, which put4Mountain Dew Selecting New Creative502-040the viewer in the middle of the action, also suggested excitement and energy. The spots were set to aggressive rock music rather than studio jingles. In 1992, a new song called Get Vertical is introduced with the lyrics Aint no doubt about the power of dew, got the airborne thrust of uprise fuel.Cultural TrendsPepsiCo and BBDO managers paid close attention to cultural trends. They were particularly focused on track music and sports trends since these activities were so central to youth culture. Music. ternion melodic trends dominated the airwaves in the 1990s. Rap music exploded to become the most popular literary genre in the country. At runner, gangsta rap, which flaunted misogynistic and violent lyrics, was utter to represent the sureity of life in the hood (the American ghetto). From 1992 onward, gangsta rap broke out with a lighter sound and slightly less aggressive lyrics, sometimes called gangsta-lite, that made the music much more get-at-able while maintaining the forbidding connotations. By 1993, media coverage of the travails of celebrity rappers like espy Doggy Dog and Tupac Shakur ruled not only the music magazines but People and Newsweek. Rap music, and the hip-hop lifestyle of which it was a part, permeated teen life. MTVs program Yo MTV Raps and specialty magazines like The etymon and Vibe became mainstream cultural venues. By 1999, rap remained very popular amongst male teens, especially in urban areas, though its Top 40 appeal had subsided somewhat.At roughly the same time, the alternati ve rock music scene, which throughout the 1980s existed as a small subcultural scene found in general on college campuses, also exploded. 2 Seattle bands paradise and Pearl Jamput CDs at the top of the charts with aggressive and emotive music that combined equal parts punk and heavy metal. The media tagged this music poop and anointed Seattle as poop headquarters. Grunge was marketed heavily by the culture industries music labels put out dozens of grunge bands, films that displayed the grunge attitude appeared, and fashion runways and J.C. Pennys stores were clogged with washrag shirts and clothes that had the look of the vintage Salvation Army gear that was the uniform of the grunge scene. Grunge faded in its influence in part due to the death of its most talented lead actor when Nirvanas Kurt Cobain committed suicide in 1995.Later in 1990s, techno music began making significant inroads into American youth culture. Invented in the 1980s as house music in low-budget studios of Chicago and Detroit, this beatdriven dance music became the lifeblood of dance parties called raves in places like London and the Spanish island of Ibiza. Raves quickly spread throughout continental Europe and beyond. Raves were all-night dancing marathons a lot set up in warehouses, exotic outdoor locales, and other improvised spaces. Raves attracted preteen people, mostly teens, who danced for hours at a time, not in pairs, but in free-form groups. The highly rhythmic music and long-winded dancing combined to produce for some fans an ecstatic trance-like state. The music was produced almost enti hope by disk jockeys try records with tape loops and other electronic tricks. Many sub-genres have since emerged that mix-and-match musical styles from around the world. Part of the scene was a drug called ecstasy, a drug that induces light affection, sensory overload, and euphoria. And, to keep the energy flowing all night, the dancers demanded energizing drinks. In particular, an en terprising Austrian company marketed Red Bull, a drink that was once an Asiatic hangover cure, as a rave stimulant. Either substantial or mixed with vodka, Red Bull became the rave drink of choice. Raves balmy rather late to the United States, but proved to be most popular in the major metropolitan areas.5502-040Mountain Dew Selecting New CreativeSports. The so-called alternative sports took off in the early 1990s. teen enthusiasts transformed casual hobby activitiesmountain biking, skateboarding, paragliding, BMX biking, and in-line skatinginto highly technical, creative, and often dangerous sports. Snowboarding became an overnight hit with teens. Bungee jumping was a fad that disappeared quickly. As these sports became progressively risky and creative, they began to attract spectators. So-called extreme sports go down extremely steep terrain or jumping off rangy buildings with a parachutewere covered by ESPN. ESPN also aggressively promoted circuits and tournaments to change these new sports, which culminated in the Extreme Games in 1994, a non-traditional Olympics of sorts. Mountain Dew was one of the founding lead sponsors of the Extreme Games, which later became the X Games. Later, NBC followed with the Gravity Games, and MTV also began to cover these sports. Grunge music, more aggressive styles of rap, and various hybrids were prominent aural expressions of these sports.GenX Ethos. During the 1990s, teens and young adults evinced a growing cynicism toward the dominant work-oriented values of the previous propagation and toward corporations more generally. They found that working hard to get ahead in terms of salary and occupational prestige was harder to swallow in an era of corporate reengineering. Their cynicism also extended to corporations themselves and their marketing efforts. As this cohort became increasingly knowl borderlineable about how marketing worked and increasingly jaded about why brands were popular, they were not avocation ed in listening to sales messages that tried to gestate them into believing a particular brand of soft drink or beer was cool. Instead, these youth adopted a campy interest in non-trendy products, idiot box programs, and music of previous eras. As these odd new tastes became commercialized in programming like snickelodeon cable channels Nick at Nite serieswhich featured less-than-notable programming from the 1950s-1970s retro was born.The Do the Dew leadIn 1992, senior management at PepsiCo sensed an opportunity to increase business on Diet Mountain Dew. Diet Mountain Dews distribution was limited mostly to the rural regions where the brand was strongest, even though regular Dew was now a national brand. Diet Mountain Dew performed very well on product tests versus other diet drinks in the category because the heavy citrus flavor did a better job of binding the undesirable taste of the artificial sweetener. So PepsiCo allocated money for incremental advertising to support a n effort to expand Diet Mountain Dew distribution. Bill Bruce, then(prenominal) a junior copywriter working on several brands, was assigned to the project. The strategy statements that choked the initial creative idea and subsequent spots in the campaign are reported in bear witness 3. Bruce came up with the Do Diet Dew tag line (which soon evolved into Do the Dew to support the entire brand) and several new ideas to embellish what BBDO had begun with the Get Vertical campaign.The first breakthrough ad of the new campaign, Done That, features a hair-raising shot of a guy jumping off the edge of a cliff to take a free-fall toward the narrow canyons river bottom, set to throbbing grunge music. This was the first ad to feature the Dew Dudesfour young guys who are witnessing the daredevil stunts presented in the ad and commenting on them. Done That became a huge hit, capturing the countrys imagination. The ad was widely parodied and the phrase been there, done that entered the vernac ular. For 1994 and 1995, BBDO produced three carbon-copy kitty-outs1 of Done That. By 1995, after two years of these ads, consumer interest in the creative was1 The noun pool-out is derived from a verb that is particular to the advertising business to pool out. The idea is to developa pool of ads that are all closely related derivations from the same creative idea. Some advertisers feel that pools deliver a6Mountain Dew Selecting New Creative502-040fading fast. According to Jeff Mordos, if the creative hadnt moved to another idea that year, consumers flagging interest and the potential of a revolt by PepsiCo bottlers likely would have squeeze PepsiCo to develop an entirely new campaign.For 1995, three of four spots produced relied upon different creative ideas. One of these spots, Mel Torme, became the second hit of the campaign. The spot was a scoffing featuring the aging Vegas lounge singer Mel Torme, tuxedo-clad atop a Vegas hotel crooning I Get a Kick out of You, with lyrics change to incorporate Mountain Dew references. He impresses the Dew Dudes with a base jump of his own. Similar ads followed. In 007, a teenage James stay put engages in a frenetic pastime scene with typical Bond stunts, accompanied by the familiar Bond theme music. The Dew Dudes are not impressed until Bond comes upon a Mountain Dew vending machine. In Training, brash tennis star Andre Agassi performs extreme stunts as training exercises, and then plays an extreme game of tennis with the Dew Dudes as his coaches.In 1997, BBDO came up with two breakthrough spots. The director of Nirvanas true music video Smells Like Teen Spirit was hired to direct convey Heaven, which mimics a music video. The spot stars the lead singer of an alternative rock band called Ruby. She sings a punked-up version of the classic song Thank Heaven for Little Girls, in which the grunge style suggests the little girls of old have been replaced by the feminine brand of aggressiveness presented in the ad. Jac kie Chan deploys the Hong Kong celluloid stars patented martial arts with learning abilityous stunts into the campaigns jaded, seen it already motif. The ad begins in the midst of what seems like a classic chase scene from a Chan film with lots of plough action. When Chan faces down his enemy, the Dew Dudes magically appear as Confucian wisemen who assist Chan with cans of Mountain Dew. Other ads produced were significantly less effective. Scream, a high-speed amalgam of extreme sports shots that are organized to answer the lead-in questionWhat is a Mountain Dew?did not fare well. And Michael Johnson, a spot developed to broaden Dews appeal in the African-American community, did not meet the companys expectations.By 1998, PepsiCo managers worried that the advertising was decorous too predictable. In particular, they were come to that the use of alternative sports was becoming less impactful due to oversaturation. Many other brands, including companies like Bagel Bites, AT& ampT, Gillette Extreme Deodorant, and Slim Jims boot jerky snacks, were now major sponsors of alternative sports. To keep the campaign fresh, they involve to find alternative ways to express Mountain Dews distinctive features. Parking Attendant, produced in 1999, was a solid effort at locomote toward an alternative expression. The spot features a parking attendant who takes liberties when parking a BMW handed off by a stuffy businessman. The kid drives as if in a police chase, flying from one building to another, accompanied by a frenetic surf instrumental that had been featured in Quentin Tarantinos Pulp Fiction a few years prior.Mountain Dew Market ResearchMountain Dews distinctive demographic visibleness reflected the brands historic popularity in the NASCAR belt (see the Brand ontogeny big businessman Map in Exhibit 4 and lifestyle depth psychology in Exhibit 5a). And Mountain Dew had much lower penetration of the add together population than its major competitors. But it s consumers were the most loyal in the category. Mountain Dew had the highest gatekeeping rating of all CSDsit was the drink that mothers tried the hardest to keep out of the more consistent campaign while others feel that the ads become too conventional when they are so similar. Regardless, there is a great temptation when an ad breaks through and becomes a hit to develop pool-outs to extend thepopularity.7502-040Mountain Dew Selecting New Creativestomachs of their children. Periodically, the PepsiCo research department fielded a major count to assess the wellness of the brand, and to direct any fine-tuning. A 1997 brand physical fitness study profiled the status of the Dew brand versus its major competitors (Exhibits 6a-d). PepsiCo monitored both the effectiveness of individualistic ads, as well as the cumulative impact of advertising on the overall wellness of the Mountain Dew brand. The contribution made by a single ad toward building brand equity was notoriously intrig uing to measure. Both quantitative and qualitative research provided data from which managers make utilizable inferences. But Pepsi managers had yet to find a research method that was precise enough to rely upon to provide definitive models on ad effectiveness. PepsiCo routinely gathered a wide variety of data that hinted at an ads impact.In addition to formal research, managers monitored talk value or buzzthe extent to which the ad has been picked up by the mass media. In particular, The Tonight Show and David Letterman were useful barometers. Feedback from the Mountain Dew website, unofficial websites, and the brands 800 number were important gauges as well. In addition, PepsiCo carefully monitored how the salesforce and bottlers responded to the ads, since they were getting direct feedback from their customers. PepsiCo managers used all these data as filters. But, ultimately, the military rating of advertising rest on managerial judgement. Based on their past incur with the br and and with advertising across many brands, managers made a reasoned evaluation.However, PepsiCo managers did rely on market research to assess the cumulative impact of advertising on the brand. Because many other factorsespecially pricing and retail display activityhad an immediate short-term impact on sales, it was often baffling to draw causal relationships between advertising and sales. But advertising campaigns do directly impact how the brand is perceived. And these perceptions, in turn, drive sales. So PepsiCo had assembled a set of what they termed key performance indicators (KPIs), intermediate measures that were directly impacted by advertising and that had been proven to significantly impact sales. Managers tracked KPIs, also referred to as brand health measures, both for teens and for 20-39 year olds. But managers were particularly concerned with brand health amongst teens because at this age soft drink consumers often moved from experimenting with a variety of dr inks to becoming loyal lifetime drinkers of a single soda.The latest study, conducted in the spring of 1999, reported Mountain Dews teen KPIs. Dew improved 6 points on Dew Tastes Better (to 48% versus a year ago). Unaided brand sense had dropped 5 points (to 39%). For individual like me had change magnitude 5 points (to 53%). And Dew Drinkers are Cool increased 5 points (to 64%).2000 PlanningIn 1999, Mountain Dew became the third largest carbonated soft drink at retail, overtaking Diet Coke. However, part of this success in gaining share had to do with the sustained weakness of Pepsi and Coke. In 1999, the problems that the colas were cladding seemed to be spreading to Mountain Dew, Sprite, and Dr. Pepper. All of the leading CSDs began to show real weakness as alternative non-carbonated drinks began to attract a great deal of campaign, especially amongst teens. While Mountain Dew sales began to lag, all of the brand health indicators remained strong. And the advertising continu ed to significantly outperform competition. In planning for 2000, Moffitt and his senior management were particularly concerned with two dilemmas How to keep the Do the Dew campaign working hard to build the brand given that extreme sports were becoming overexposed How to respond to the growing threat of non-CSDs, especially Gatorade and the new highlycaffeinated and sugary energy drinks like Red BullMountain Dew Selecting New Creative502-040A detailed strategy statement was developed by Moffitts team at Pepsi-Cola North America, in conjunction with the account team at BBDO New York led by Cathy Israelevitz. This strategy was boiled down to a single sentence to focus the development of new creative make up that drinking Mountain Dew is an exhilarate feature. This document was used to brief Bruce and his creative team (Exhibit 7).Exhibit 7Mountain Dew FY 2000 Brand Communications schemaObjective Expand appeal of Mountain Dew to new users while reinforcing it among live u sers Positioning To 18 year old males, who embrace excitement, adventure and fun, Mountain Dew is the great tasting carbonated soft drink that exhilarates like no other because it is energizing, thirstquenching, and has a one-of-a-kind citrus flavor. Communication system Symbolize that drinking Mountain Dew is an beatify experience. Target manlike Teens18 year-old epicenter  guarantee appeal amongst 20-39 year olds (current users) Drive universal appeal (white, African-American, Hispanic, and other ethnic)Product BenefitsEnergizingEmotional BenefitsExhilarationPersonalityIrreverentQuenching irritationDaringGreat TasteFunSource PepsiCo exceedingly areaIn addition to these strategic issues, Moffitt had to consider carefully where these ads would be broadcast. Mountain Dews national media plan focused on a younger audience. Typical buys would include MTV, The Simpsons, and ESPN during alternative sports broadcasts. However, with its long run of sales increases in the 1990s , Mountain Dew was becoming less of a niche brand. Partly in recognition of this expanding customer base and partly to celebrate within the company Dews arrival as the third most popular CSD, top management decided to feature Mountain Dew rather than Pepsi during the exceedingly gutter.The Super roll had for decades been a hugely influential event for advertisers. The game drew the biggest audience of the year and the ads received an amazing amount of attention. In recent years, the frenzy around the advertising had grown disproportionately to the game itself. The media paid almost as much attention to the ads shown as to the teams and players.The networks interviewed the advertisers and the stars of the ads, and even replayed the ads on their programs. So a Super Bowl ad now had a huge ripple effect in free public relations. In addition, the Super Bowl was an extremely important contest for advertisers and especially for ad agencies. To win the9502-040Mountain Dew Selecting New C reativeSuper Bowl (to be voted the top ad in the USA Today Ad Meter poll reported in the newspaper the following day) was a prestigious honor within the industry. Finally, Super Bowl ads provided a powerful sales tool to motivate retailers and distributors. PepsiCo and other grocery products advertisers used their yearbook Super Bowl advertising to sell in retail displays. Super Bowl advertising, as a result, had become a distinctive genre within advertising. The demographically diverse audience demanded advertising with hooks that were easily understood. Insider humor did not work. While MTV ads could talk in a colloquial speech communication to teens, Super Bowl ads could not afford this luxury. Second, the heated competition to win the affection of the audience had led to big productions that would stand out against an ever-more majestic set of competitors.The New CreativeBruce and Cassar had just finished presenting ten new ad concepts for PepsiCo to evaluate. For each concep t, PepsiCo managers were given a storyboarda script and a set of rough pencil sketches that depicted the most important scenes. Bruce and Cassar talked through each storyboard to help the client imagine how the ad would look if it were produced. The storyboard served as the skeletal outline of the ad. The creatives put flesh on these bones by describing in detail the characters, the action, how the scene is depicted, and the music. Of the ten new concepts, Moffitt and his senior managers hoped to select three ads to produce.The two best ads would run on the Super Bowl and then all three ads would be broadcast throughout 2000. It was already October, so there was barely enough time to produce the ads presented to get them on the Super Bowl. Asking Bruce to try again was not an option. The ten initial concepts were quickly whittled down to five finalists. 1) Labor of Love. A joking spot about the birth of a Dew drinker. The doctor in the bringing room calls out code green and re treats to catch with a baseball mitt the baby as it ruptures out of its mother like a cannon.2) Cheetah. One of the Dew Dudes chases down a cheetah on a mountain bike. The cheetah, running on the African plain, has stolen his Dew and he wants it back. He tackles the cat, pulls the can out of the cats stomach, but finds that its empty and full of holes. 3) Dew or Die. The Dew Dudes are called in to foil the plot of an evil villain who is sour to blow up the planet. Performing daredevil maneuvers down a mountain, they get sidetracked in a ski lodge with some girls, but haply save the world anyway, powered by a spilt can of Dew.4) taunt Opera. A parody of the Queen song Bohemian Rhapsody sung by the Dew Dudes who mock the cover of the original Queen album. The ad portrays the story of the altered lyrics alternative sports action in which the athletes just miss cans of Dew as they shoot by. 5) Showstopper. A take-off on an extravagantly choreographed production number that mimics a Buzby Berkeley musical/dance film from the 1930s. The dancers are silver-clad BMX riders and skateboarders who perform for the Dew Dudes posing as directors. PepsiCo viewed the evaluation of new creative as the most challenging aspect of brand management.Unlike decisions on new product ideas, consumer promotions, or product improvements, there was no market research or marketplace data to guide the decision. Junior managers typically did not sit in the agency presentations as they were not yet seasoned enough to judge creative work. PepsiCo believed that managers first had to gain knowledge of how advertising 10Mountain Dew Selecting New Creative502-040worked to build brands through years of seasoning and tutorials on several of the companys brands. So Scott Moffitt was the most junior person in the room. The skills and judgment that he demonstrated would be key to moving up the carry at PepsiCo. Bill Bruce finished presenting his last storyboard and scanned the room to lock look with the PepsiCo executives who would be deciding the fate of his ideas. Scott Moffitt didnt return the gaze. Instead he looked anxiously at his superiors, knowing that the spotlight would next focus on him.This was his chance to prove himself not only to PepsiCo senior management, but also to BBDO. BBDOs senior managers had become influential advisors, whom PepsiCos top marketing executives routinely relied upon to help guide branding decisions. With six years of experience under his belt, this was Moffitts chance to earn their respect as a contributing member to these critical discussions. Moffitt was eager to make a strong impression with nuanced and well-reasoned evaluations. Following long-standing protocol in packaged goods companies, the junior manager at the table gets the first crack at evaluating the creative. Moffitt cleared his throat, complimented Bruce on the high quality of the new work he had presented, and began his evaluation.11502-040Exhibit 1-12-CSD sales/ perce ntage(Million Cases/Percent Market)1990CokePepsiDiet CokeDiet PepsiSpriteDr. PepperMountainDew7-UPSurgeMello Yello199119921993199419951996199719981999 (Est.)Sales address1,565.5 20.11,370.0 17.6726.9 9.3490.0 6.3295.0 3.8364.8 4.7300.0 3.9Sales Share1,597.9 20.11,338.0 16.9741.2 9.3500.0 6.3313.1 3.9385.3 4.9327.5 4.1Sales Share1,613.9 20.11,327.3 16.5732.6 9.1509.5 6.4328.1 4.1414.0 5.2351.1 4.4Sales Share1,680.4 20.21,305.9 15.7740.6 8.9491.5 5.9357.6 4.3445.6 5.4387.6 4.7Sales Share1,776.7 20.41,310.0 15.0767.6 8.8511.2 5.9396.3 4.5485.1 5.6455.0 5.2Sales Share1,868.6 20.81,344.3 15.0793.0 8.8521.4 5.8460.3 5.1515.0 5.7509.6 5.7Sales Share1,929.2 20.81,384.6 14.9811.4 8.7541.5 5.8529.8 5.7536.8 5.8535.6 5.8Sales Share1,978.2 20.61,391.5 14.5819.0 8.5523.5 5.5598.0 6.2566.8 5.9605.2 6.3Sales Share2,037.5 20.61,399.8 14.2851.8 8.6529.7 5.4651.8 6.6599.4 6.1665.1 6.7Sales Share2,018.0 20.31,371.8 13.8843.0 8.5503.0 5.1671.5 6.8630.0 6.3705.0 7.1211.5 2.7207.742.92.6211.349.52.6209. 959.52.564.0221.52.564.6219.92.561.6217.72.359.0216.769.046.62.3210.951.842.42.1204.926.741.62.1Source Maxwell writingExhibit 2Advertising Spending Television MediaMajor CSDs ($MM)CokePepsiMountainDewSpriteDr. Pepper7-UpSurge1990$157.4$129.8$ 12.91991$139.9$141.3$ 20.01992$168.1$137.8$ 25.91993$131.1$144.0$ 29.11994$161.5$120.6$ 30.31995$124.7$133.1$ 38.31996$199.8$ 98.1$ 40.41997$156.8$133.1$ 43.11998$140.4$140.5$ 50.31999$167.7$165.9$ 45.02000 (Est.)$208.3$159.6$ 55.9$ 32.0$ 32.2$ 38.8$ 0.0$ 36.1$ 49.3$ 37.4$ 0.0$ 27.5$ 50.1$ 23.7$ 0.0$ 26.9$ 52.8$ 29.4$ 0.0$ 36.0$ 61.5$ 27.3$ 0.0$ 54.6$ 65.4$ 23.2$ 0.0$ 57.9$ 67.9$ 33.1$ 0.0$$$$$$$$$ 69.9$102.4$ 38.7$ 19.6$ 87.7$106.8$ 45.1$ 0.2Source Competitive Media Reports60.681.038.715.556.286.827.021.0502-040Exhibit 3Mountain Dew Brand Communications Strategies (1993-1999)Objective1993-941995-13-Increase awareness and trial of Mountain DewDistinguish Mt. Dew within the competitive environmentthrough contemporary communication of the style marksdistinct, historical positioningStrategyTargetYou can have the most thrilling, exciting, daringexperience but it go away never compete with theexperience of a Mt. DewMale teens/young adultsYou can have the most thrilling, exciting, daringexperience but it will never compete with theexperience of a Mt. DewBulls eye 18 yr. old leading edge maleExecutional Direction-Distinct campaign with Dew equityconsistency-Leverage full tilt taste and rush aspoint of differenceBroad 12-29 year olds-Shift to a unified trademark focusmodeled after Do Diet Dew-Explore outdoor settings-Predominant male, mid-20s casting-Preserve balance between outlandishand realistic actions/sports19961997Optimize Dews positioning equity among the target in ahighly applicable and contemporary manner(You can have the most thrilling, exciting, daringexperience but) theres energy more intensethan slamming a Mt. DewBulls eye 18 yr. old leading edge maleOptimize Dews positioning equity among the target in ahighly re levant and contemporary manner(You can have the most thrilling, exciting, daringexperience but) theres nothing more intensethan slamming a Mt. DewBulls eye 18 yr. old leading edge male link up Mt. Dew with thrilling and exhilaratingadventures in a light-hearted mannerBulls eye 18 yr. old leading edge male-Strengthen brand perceptions among AABroad 12-29 year oldsBroad 12-29 year olds-Bring Do the Dew trademark campaignto the next take-Continue Do the Dew trademarkcampaign and encompass the Mt. Dewexperience-Encourage product trial where familiarity is low1998Build badge value and authentic, true Icon status for Mt.Dew in the world of youth-targeted consumer goodsBroad 12-29 male/female-Evolve the Do the Dew campaignagainst core target with fresh andrelevant copy-Develop ethnically-targeted crossappeal spot-Enhance product perception1999Optimize relevance of Dews positioning among the targetAssociate Mt. Dew with the exhilarating intensity oflifes most exciting, fun adventuresMale T eens (16 yr. old epicenter)Develop pool of Do the Dew executions-Invite teen girls while chronic as maleCSD-Explore other metaphors beyondalternative sports to express exhilaratingintensity-Maintain cross-over appeal among 2039 year olds-One execution should have AA/urbanrelevance-Communicate quenching-Inclusion of water-greenery elements notmandatorySource PepsiCo502-040Exhibit 4Mountain Dew Brand Development Index MapSource BBDO New York-14-502-040Exhibit 5aSpectra Lifestyle AnalysisMOUNTAIN DEWCONSUMPTIONINDEXLIFESTAGESPECTRALIFESTYLE18-34 W/Kids18-34 W/O Kids35-54 W/Kids35-54 W/O Kids55-6465+ perfect LifestyleUpscale Suburbs827710156451364Traditional Families11812116079423596Mid UpscaleSuburbs10111110871641866Metro Elite1398514147472172Working ClassTowns2371392421216742139 uncouth Towns &Farms2251532121419139140Mid Urban Melting portion1481049752493174Downscale Rural3091422911278743158Downscale Urban999810773553276Total Lifestage171112165836131100Source AC Nielsen Product Lib rary 11/97 to 11/99-15-502-040Exhibit 5bMountain Dew Selecting New CreativeLifestyle GlossaryLifestyle GlossaryUpscale SuburbsThe American woolgather, a nice house in a nice suburban neighborhood.College-educated executives and professionals who index high on travel, eating out, playing golf, going to health clubs, buying imported cars, ceremony/reading business and news. busted African-American and Hispanic. High income.Traditional FamiliesLike Upscale Suburbs, but lower socio-economic level. rumple of lower level administrators and professionals with well-paid blue-collar. Index high on gardening, DIY home improvement, movement SUVs, camping, classic rock, sports radio. Low African-American and Hispanic. Mid-high income. Mid/Upscale SuburbsLive in first-generation suburbs that are now part of the urban fringe. Lower income than Traditional Families, but more college-educated and white collar. Index high on baseball fans, casino gambling, using internet, attending live theatre , reading science and technology, listening/watching news. Low African-American and Hispanic. Mid-high income.Metro EliteYounger and more urban, college-educated, ethnically diverse. Very attuned to new fashions. Geographically mobile. Index high on health clubs, bars and night clubs, fashion magazines, VH-1, music, film, computers. Middle income.Working Class Towns easily paid blue collar families living in suburbs of smaller cities. Index high on auto racing, fishing, hunting, country music, camping, televised sports. Own trucks or minivans. Low African-American and Hispanic. Middle income.Rural Towns & FarmsSmall towns mostly in the middle of the country, dominated by blue-collar and agricultural work. Index high on rodeos, fishing, woodworking, chewing tobacco, wrestling, camping, country music, TV movies, USA and TNN channels. Dont read magazines and newspapers. Low African-American. Lower income. Mid Urban Melting visual senseUrban multi-ethnic neighborhoods. Old European ethnic enclaves and new Asian immigrants, mixed with African-American and Hispanic neighborhoods. Index high on menthol cigarettes, dance music, boxing, pro basketball, lottery, Home Shopping Network, heavy TV viewing, urban contemporary radio. Lower income, low college, service industries.Downscale RuralPoor rural areas in Appalachia, throughout the South, and the Plains States. This socially conservative and religious area is sometimes called the bible belt While indexing high African-American, these are very segregated neighborhoods with little racial mixing. Lowest on education, occupation, income, housing. Index high on trucks, chewing tobacco, belonging to veterans club, target shooting, tractor pulls, country music, fishing and hunting., daytime drama TV programs.Downscale Urban equivalent socioeconomic profile as Downscale Rural but very different cultural profile, more similar to Mid-Urban Melting Pot. Mostly African-American and Hispanic urban neighborhoods. Source AC Niel sen Product Library 11/97 to 11/9916502-040Exhibit 6aBrand imagination Mountain DewProduct imaging*Too sweetMost socialize adsFun to drinkIntense experienceLots of flavorWhen get energy boostIn mood for something different*At a sporting eventUser vision(54%)Psychographic resource gallant rattling(a)ActiveDaring*CourageousExcitingFree-spiritedRebellious intuitive gymnasticYouthfulCoolHip*Out-going(Someone youd spendtime with)Source BBDO New York-17-502-040Exhibit 6bBrand Imagery SurgeProductImagery*Cant relate to ads*Low quality product*not always availableUniqueIntense experience*Tastes artificialWhen need energy boostIn mood for somethingdifferentSource BBDO New YorkUserImagery(49%)PsychographicImageryWildRebelliousDaringAdventurousActiveUp-to-dateAthletic*TrendyYouthful*Leading-edgeExcitingSpontaneousIndividualistic*PowerfulHipIn style-18-502-040Exhibit 6cBrand Imagery 7 UpProductImagery*Least fatLowest caloriesLow in sodium*Too little flavor*Not sweet enough*Not filling*He althy/good for youMost refreshingSource BBDO New YorkUserImagery(48%)PsychographicImagerySensitiveRelaxedPeaceful*HealthyFeminineKind*Nurturing(Nice)(Loyal)(Cooperative)-19-502-040Exhibit 6dBrand Imagery SpriteProduct ImageryLowest caloriesMost refreshing*Thirst quenching*Goes down easyLow in sodiumIn a nice restaurant*After exercise/sports(In the evening)(In the morning)Imagery(56%)PsychographicImageryFeminineSensitivePeaceful*NiceRelaxedFree-spirited*Cooperative* amiable*HappyKind(Innovative)

Characteristics of each of the 5 kingdoms and their meanings Essay

Every living creature on Earth belongs to a kingdom. Scientists debate how m either kingdoms on that point ar, but most agree there be five. Here is how the five kingdoms atomic number 18 organized. Monera Monera are single-celled organisms that dont have a nucleus. Bacteria influence up the entire kingdom. There are more forms of bacteria than any other organism on Earth. Some bacteria are unspoiled to us, such as the ones found in yogurt. Others can cause us to get sick.ProtistsProtists are mostly single-celled organisms that have a nucleus. They ordinarily live in water. Some protists move around, while others stay in one place. Examples of protists include some algae, paramecium, and amoeba.FungiFungi are commonly motionless organisms that absorb nutrients for survival. They include mushrooms, molds, and yeasts. Plants Plants contain chlorophyll, a green key necessary for photosynthesis, a process in which plants convert energy from sunlight into nutrition. Their cell walls are made sturdy by a corporal called cellulose, and they are fixed in one place. Plants are divided into deuce groups flower- and fruit-producing plants and those that dont produce flowers or fruits. They include garden flowers, bucolic crops, grasses, shrubs, ferns, mosses, and conifers.AnimalsAnimals are the most complex organisms on Earth. Animals are multi-celled organisms, eat food for survival, and have nervous systems. They are divided into vertebrates and invertebrates and include mammals, amphibians, reptiles, birds and fish. Actually, there are now six kingdoms. The five kingdom was during the 1969 and it included all the bacterias indoors one group. The five kingdom system is as follows1. Monera Bacteria. They are prokaryotic and unicellular. They are mobile. 2. protista Protists. They are eukaryotic. Either autotrophic, heterotrophic, or compensate mixotrophic. They live live as unicellular, multicellular, or even as a colony. Some are mobile while some are ses sile. 3. kingdom Animalia Animals. Eukaryotic and are heterotrophic. They are all multicellular and are mobile. 4. plant kingdom Plants. Eukaryotic and mostly autotrophic (some parasitic plants are heterotrophic). They are multicellular and sessile. 5. fungi Mushrooms, fungus, etc. Eukaryotic and heterotrophic. They are multicellular and sessile

Saturday, January 26, 2019

Nourz Mini Mart

Nourrz miniskirtskirt mart Introduction Nourrz mini mart is a small demarcation which was established in declination 2007, as we all know the hardest part of contrast is establishing Fear of mishap The fear of not succeeding simply paralyzes the latent entrepreneur. A need of confidence freezes any chance of getting started but it was very sacred to see some one who has the courage to start his own output line in a foreign coun filter out and some more the possessor stated that he has some other railway linees in Malaysia although he is earlier from Egypt.In addition the crinkle operates in a very strategic place in UUM where all the students can get access to it which is climb to University Inn hotel and the Arab restaurant and the nature of the business is grocery products such as beverages, biscuits, household products and the analogouss. elevate more the target markets of the business be the customers of the hotel, the restaurant and the students residing in ne arby university Inn and Maybank residential hall and the whole university since the reliableness of the shop is high in terms of time it is 24/7 receptive which attracted so numerous customers and fulfilled the needs of the students incase of extremity need or any necessity. The business is specializing in wholesale &038 retail.Nourrz mini mart business foundation is based on its honesty in a step by step footprint, hardship spirit &038 too taking a stable footstep towards the future. The environment of the business is sincerely satisfying however we have conducted an oral interview about the lineament of the product, customer service and etc. 72% answers from customers said that the lineament of the products sell in Nourrz mini mart is good while 18% answers from customers responded the quality is less than its competitors.Most of the respondents believe that its much lower scathe than its competitors however we would like to talk about the nature of the business, suggested income and productivity. Nature of the business Buscuit products Blue Key Brown&038Polson Bunga Raya Products, Cap Pelangi , Kings M &038 S Santan Kelapa ,UHT MECP Product Nona Products, Royal Baking Powder, Spoon blot steer Brand etc Canned food Ayam Brand, Classfoods, Gogomas Gogomas Cuttle, Fish King Cup, Ligo Corn, Makmur , Marina, Mega Sardine porc (Non Halal), Sri Melati Sardine, TC Boy Tuna , TST Baked Beans , TST Processed Peas Yeos Brand E.T. C Get various types of drinks such ascoffee, tea, soft drinks, energy drinks, oats, cereal grass and cordial here Coffee &038 Tea (93) D/Lion Cordial, Gogomas, Nestum grain , Nestum Oat Power Root Quaker Oat , Ribena, Soft Drinks . Detergents Worrying about your washroom, outhouse or kitchen cleanliness? You can get detergent, Powder, soap and liquid washer here, many types of famous brand product you can select from. Noodles Assorted Noodles intromit cup noodles, pot noodles, frozen noodles and instant noodles. Noodle can serve d in soup, fried and chilled.Soup flavours examples argon such as curry, chicken, beef, raksa, ramen, saimin and batchoy. Rices Rice contains luxuriant of protein and vitamins and it is cooked by boiling or steaming using electric sieve cooker. Rice can be made into rice porridge as healthful by adding more water than usual. The following are several brand and quality rice that you can select from. 1. Sunflower 2. Sakura 3. Saga 4. Bird Of nirvana 5. Jati 6. Malee SWOT ANALYSIS Strength Seeing and considering the potentialitys relative to Nourrz competitors and from its customers perspective are the business is located in a competitive and strategic r from each one here all the students and visitors can get access, communication is another strength of the shop because language is the main medium of communication within the business this is arguably the main compelling factor for marketing of the business in particular customer satisfaction so these drives competitiveness as a potential Better and efficient communication system for example English , Bahasa Malaysia and Arabic languages are used on top of that the shop is tidy and adapted for business purposes.Weakness The weakness of the minimart is contributed by the constraint of quadriceps limit, trammel staff sometimes the business runs short supply of the products it need and in any case the location of the business would have been offend if it is located in the stub of the university or more strategic place. Opportunities. 1. It can expand their business 2. Arab product such as drinks and Arab bred. 3. Affordable price 4. 4/7 open Threats Price competition is a threat to Nourrz minimart since they import their products from the Arab countries that they pay higher(prenominal) transportation cost and all the import tax, victimization and customer liabilities are another ways that the minimart faces threat. Recommendation Knowing how to successfully expand a small business is a skill that many b usiness owners do not possess but we are giving the minimart to some suggestions like doing research before making any major decisions the more informed, the better will be the decisions that the owner make.To offer bare-ass products or service then first consider what the impact would be given sure market conditions as well as your available resources. If you are preparation on changing your location, then you should consider finding strategic position. Further more try to stay one-step ahead of your growth. To save on time, money, and productivity, you should try to be prepared for any future changes your small business is likely to experience.If, for example, you are renovating your location, then build into your plans more space than what you soon need. In addition watch your cash flow. It is common among small businesses to postulate with tight cash flow. This is all the more true when a business starts to rapidly expand. As growth happens, it is easy to loose sight of your expenditures. Since a lot of money is being directed outside of the business for new equipment, new supplies, or higher payroll expenses, a cash famine is usually inevitable.The minimart would be in a better position if you try to improve on the marketing skills for example awareness of the business by other customers so that they can get a lot of customers, much(prenominal) as posting information in residential places in the campus. The businesses in like manner need two to three more staff members to support each other on their routine in shift times. The business whitethorn need space for the products to be kept in position for sale. The space is not enough to accommodate the service that is being rendered by the staff. .

Friday, January 25, 2019

Abusive Relationships: Why Stay in the Relationship and What Determines Leaving Essay

It is often asked wherefore a adult female doesnt go steady an shameful birth. Society tends to assume that the finale is as simple as a normal break-up, if non easier because in that respect is an obvious reason to issue. besides there are many cistrons knotty into the relationship and many things to consider when making the determination to support or to leave. In disgraceful relationships, what destines bideing and what determines leave? It is estimated that annually 3 million occurrences of municipal violence occur and that one in four women will twist a victim of such violence.Of those victims, more than four people are killed daily as a result of domestic violence (DVRC). With step possibly escalating to a point of death, why would a spouse stay in a relationship? Conclusions start out been drawn as to why a woman might stay in the relationship, including internal and orthogonal resources. The external resources would include such things as an income, soci al support, housing etcetera Internal resources would include a persons self-esteem, mental health status, whether they suffer from opinion or anxiety.Pamela Choice and Leanne Lamke stated that different theories undeniable to be taken into consideration when observing a womens decision to stay or leave. The theories included learned helpless(prenominal)ness, psychological entrapment, the investment lesson and reasoned action or planned behavior. Learned helpless is a attitude where the victim feels she had no other options, that not matter what she does the situation will expect the same. Psychological entrapment is where a women tries to make the relationship a peaceable one, but instead the violence continues causing her to feel that she should have tried harder.This situation often leaves the woman feeling that a nonviolent relationship is attainable and questioning if it is worth the investment, and if so, she then feels that there is similarly much invested thus far to leave, in turn causing the feelings of entrapment. The investment model determines whether maintaining the current relationship is worthwhile, is she better off to leave and is she at ease in the relationship. Finally, the reasoned action model is where a women is able to determine if she is able to actually leave, is it inwardly her control and is it more beneficial for her to leave than to stay in the relationship.External forces also contribute to a womans decision to leave. Establishing employment, housing and other essential tasks also capture extremely difficult during the separation from an abusive partner (Bell 2007). With such struggles, within two months 60% of women end up returning to their partners (Bell 2007). In Carlson and McNutts study observing partner wickedness and mental health, they looked at the womens personal history of abuse. Whether or not she been exposed to violence as a child or as an adult. Also the effects the abuse has on a womens mental healt h including depression, anxiety and posttraumatic assay disorder.They found that many battered women had low levels of social support which in turn lead to higher levels of depression and more difficulty with job solving. In a self-evaluation, many of the participants reported higher levels of symptoms for anxiety and depression (Carlson 2002). Women in an abused relationship tend to have a real level of dependency upon their partner, causing them to feel trapped. Women who are more in all likelihood to be economically dependent and unemployed (especially with children) are at a higher risk of being in an abusive relationship (Bostock 2008).Bostock et. al canvas what reasons were knotted in a woman decision to stay in a harmful relationship. They investigated twelve women from rural Northern modern England between the shape ups of 21 and 56, on various aspects of the relationship. Theses aspects included how the abuse began, the ship canal of abusing, the impact of the abuse , what factors contributed to recognizing the abuse as intolerable and what helped in gaining independence. They concluded that a womens reason for stay was fear of the abuser, a feeling of lading to the relationship and insufficient funds or resources.To help leave the relationship the women studied pulled upon their sense of hope, humor and spirituality and reclaiming their identity (Bostock 2008). In 1976 Richard Gelles studied abused wives and why they stay. In his article he stated that women do not break off a relationship for a design of reasons including negative self-esteem, the belief the husband will reform, economic hardship, difficulty of employment, live alone, the childrens wellbeing (economically) and the stigma with divorce.He also discovered that a woman would be more in all probability to stay in an abusive relationship if she had been exposed to abuse as a child, growing up with idea that it is allowed for a man to hit his wife. Another contributing factor t o a womens decision to stay is a lack of distant resources, not seeing many alternatives to the current situation. If the abuse is inconstant and not considered severe, then she will remain with the spouse (Gelles 1976). The decision to leave an abusive relationship was studied by Michael Strube in 1984, and his work was cited through many other journals.The population consisted of 251 women of low to middle income, varying in age from 17 to 69 to have been exposed to moderate of life jeopardize violence. Of the 251 women, 177 had decided to leave the abusive partner and those who stayed reported doing so because of love-the abuser promised changing behavior, economic hardship or lack of resources. Strube concluded that a woman was more likely to remain with the abuser if the violence was considered less frequent and less severe. Also, if the woman was exposed to violent models as a child she was more likely to remain as opposed to women who had not.But women who had previously be en in an abusive relationship were less likely to remain in another relationship, because they had developed intolerance to the abuse. Strube also found that women with fewer resources, such as economic and social support were less likely to leave. Studies have found though that ending a relationship does not end the abuse, violence is often high is situations where the women is separate from the abuser as opposed to if she was involved in a relationship. Another factor involved is how the separation occurred rather than whether or not the separation occurred (Bell 2007).The decision to leave a relationship is difficult it becomes increasingly difficult when the partner is violent. The women, unmarried mentally have to prepare themselves as such to leave the relationship, and adjudicate every aspect of their life and their future. Without sufficient support and resources leaving a dangerous and harmful situation is virtually impossible. To seek the support and resources a certain level of self worth and esteem is essential, providing the woman with an insight for her future.