Wednesday, January 16, 2019
Our Posthuman Future Summary Essay
Chapter 1At the beginning of Our Post piece Future by Francis Fukuyama, it duologue c put uply devil different books 1984 and Brave New World. These books talk slightly multiple technologies that would variegate and shape the next two generations. For the decade that these books were published it had them think that having a utopian world would know no consequences. I disagree with it for the virtu all toldy part, because if we ar created to present certain qualities or characteristics in that mentionfore we would lose the soul of what it humbles to be gentlemanity.It referred to invetro fertilization and Fukoyama thought it was a deal with the devil. And it is in a track. We shouldnt be allowed to mess with the creation of life or take up what they would look analogous, how they would act reasonable because there business leader be that get by chance that they may blame the pargonnts instead of themselves. Bioengineering is non something to be trifled with. You must be cargonful with your steps or sheath the consequences of what the aftermath may be. Basically chapter bingle creates a visual for the incoming of the human race if evolution is pushed to far then we depart boldness our pee-pee got destruction that we caused.Chapter 2So the beginning of chapter two talks ab emerge molecular biology and how it could help with the pr scourtion of transmitted diseases like breast female genital organcer and cystic fibrosis. In a way this lead help our ability to improve ourselves and breathes us room to grow and see with the technological revolution. Francis mentions that we face ethical choices about transmissible privacy, proper uses of do drugss and human cloning. And we truth full(a)y do. It goes back to what we gestate is right and wrong legato we cook to take in the fine report in between. If we think about it, one human cloning does have its benefits. The chances of getting a genetic disease or dying due to a low r epellent system would severely decrease. exclusively then it goes back to losing our human qualities and someoneality. only when with the upcoming future we give have to face these issues for enhancements rather than remediation reasons. And by enhancements there may be a way to run across the genetics of homosexuality and possibly propose a plan for the p atomic number 18nts to shrink the likelihood that they will give birth to a gay barbarian. Its rather sad that an expectant m other(a) would take a pad of paper or have something injected into the fetus just so they wouldnt have to worry about the harassment. Even if you say you are against antigay discrimination then you should stick to that decision, give the person a choice before they are commensurate to make it themselves.Chapter 3Chapter three talks about the advances in the field of neuropharmacology. It also talks about Freudianism that was built on the forgo that mental illness was primarily psychological in na ture. This caused doctors to filter out drug therapy rather than talk therapy. One used was Lithium it cured a number of people and then led to other drugs like fluoxetine and Ritalin. These drugs helped relax the mentally ill and calmed them down. The drug Prozac is an anti-depressant that supposedly changed this girls life around for the better. While I do look at that her doctor over-exaggerated I think most(prenominal) doctors do.Why would they explain every possible locating effect like memory loss, violence, weight gain and the big one suicide. It definitely should not be prescribed as a query drug because of the long term side effects. Although like with most drugs, when they are first distri notwithstandinged they truthfully dont understand its genetic makeup, even with testing and trials. and by understanding them better now and how they bear upon the human system we are now able to understand the neurotransmitters, very much(prenominal) as dopamine and serotoni n.These two transmitters control the messages of the brain that can demasculinise our feelings of wellness, happiness, jealousy and fear. I feel that if the knowledge of the brain functions are able to be altered then it can cause a semipolitical standing.Francis talks about self-esteem that can only herald through by fulfilling our human desire of acknowledgment. I suppose if the drugs can give us a feeling of righteousness then in might help the depression that seems to follow us because of the world around us. But I doubt it will give us the motivation for us to set our own ideals. I still believe that these few drugs are not good for us. With our luck there will probably be an unforeseen side-effect and then where would we be, back to square one.Chapter 4Chapter four talks about the prolongation of life and the increase of life expectancies. In a way this is a bad economically because of social security and other retirement benefits. It also talks about evolutionary biologis ts that ten to believe that aging is caused by genes and that there are no shortcuts to the postponement of death. I do be to agree with this for the most part. It does not matter much how you live your life because anything can cause your while to end in a moment. No one knows when a person is going to relegate because there are also many a(prenominal) fixingss to consider. Another theory is that the body loses its functionality and just dies.And then there is also the Hayflick Limit, where environmental factors prevent the completed copying of desoxyribonucleic acid. I think that if someone were to die due to health issues it would follow more than of this idea. In time I do believe that the view point of death will change. Will a person be able to understand that their body is going out or will they fight tooth and nail to stay alive? Fear of dying plagues us all. We may be able to understand more wherefore we die in 2050 exactly that does not mean we will be prepared. I do not think we will ever be over our apprehension of dying, that is what we will have with us at all times because we are human.Chapter 5Chapter five is all about genetic engineering. Genetic engineering is definitely a huge controversy and has been for many years. The project was funded by the US and other governments across the globe. There was, of range, the usual competition and the want to be first. It seems with anything there is that pride when the secrets are unsecured to something (DNA) so complex. With the success of the ringerd Dolly sheep, some began to wonder if cloning cosmos would ever work. I personally do not believe we should be able to.There has to be a reason why our bodies are designed to create life, instead of in a cold laboratory. non to mention why would someone want to clone themselves? Another technology under study would be artificial chromosomes. Scientists want to add an peculiar(a) chromosome to the 46 we already possess.They not only want to create one, alone they want to be able to turn it on or off with the persons consent when they are of age. For them to be able to actually create this would be extremely hard if not impossible. Every one of our chromosomes serves a function so how would they be able to create one that does something different? Would it append false hope that this person would be a super genius, or have the inability to cause harm? Cloning anything is beyond difficult and causes plenty of moral and social concerns.Chapter 6Chapter six is pretty much about why we should worry about biotech. It starts off talking about eugenics (deliberate breeding of people with desirable traits). Western countries actually had laws that permitted the state to specify people them deem imbeciles. I dont understand how they can just not give someone a chance to guide life into this world. Most of the time a person becomes desperate and that is why they have to turn to a life of crime or do things they normally w ouldnt do.Granted someone finally grew a sensible and the popularity of eugenics in most places, except for the Asian territories where they have the one child per family law. They did not understand at the time that with most traits or characteristics have to be inherited by both parents. Since World War 2 eugenics has been associated with racism because of the discrimination it perceives towards certain groups of people.Its almost like tattle a child that they cant play with the blue-eyed children because they are no good. It is ridiculous on its own. There is always the chance that eugenics will pop back up, and if it does it will cause the parents to make decisions. The parent does at long last have the decision solely if pushed or persuaded a certain way it can change their course. We need to let people make their own decisions because if we dont then how will we learn from them?Chapter 7Chapter seven-spot is all about human rights. There is an unbelievable amount of rights that we commonwealth people think we should have. Not only that but it turns out that stillbirth is protected under the first amendment. We do have the right to look at whether or not we want to have a child. Its because we have choices and the right to choose. Basically the word right implies moral judgment.Truthfully I believe we do need rights, no matter what form they come in. to not have right is like going back to the eighteenth century when everything revolved around power and politics. It didnt matter what you treasured the courts decided for you. Our human nature has changed and developed into something kinder along the ways. Granted there are times when we feel as though we have no choice but to do this or that, but we can choose to not do something or hell go and do something for the better. of course consequences usually play a role in thing but the fact that we have a right to choose what we would rather do for ourselves is a vast improvement.Chapter 8Chapter eight talks about how human nature has been extremely controversial. Most of the speculation is about that fine cast asideknote between nature and nurture. Truthfully there is a fine line between them. You must know where the line is to know when to protect and when to instal tough love. This could change the characteristics and how it affects the child. Francis also kind of talks about environmental impacts and it plays a big role. Depending on the environment it can change how human being s react in difficult situations.Chapter 9 a good deal of politics centers on the question of human dignity and the desire for intuition to which it is related. This means that we humans want to be endlessly recognized by our dignity, or by which ever group we partake in. And it is very true. We constantly strive to be noticed in school for our good grades, by making that winning catch in a game or by just being ourselves. We also desire to have respect by our peers something that is rarely achiev ed. Francis goes on to talk about a factor X.Factor X is in all humans and should be prise no matter which class, skin color or gender you are. In a way its like factor X is what makes us human. If you cause harm on something without the chromosome then its ok but if you enslave, torture or kill someone with the chromosome then its a crime against humanity. For many societies the X factor was contributed to the upper ranking people. But factor X is the basic meaning of what it is to be human. Without it what are we? If we lose the idea of a factor X then it will more than apt(predicate) have us returning to discrimination at full force. Its not fair what humans have had to go through because they lack a single chromosome.Chapter 10Chapter ten is about the political control of biotechnology. The government must regulate the research of biotechnology to realise public safety. Without regulations so many bad things can happen its almost idiotic. Francis believes that the debate over biotechnology is held captive by extremists from all side, one side being the ones who are with it, the other the ones who are against it. Im leaning towards the ones who are against it. I believe that should be prohibited completely. I do think that biotechnology can be controlled but to do so would be difficult. But the real question is how? Scientists cannot police force themselves and therefore someone must watch over them.A police squad of individuals that would have a broad viewpoint would be able to be the police but to find such would be difficult. A ban on biotechnology can happen and maybe will but laws do change over time to fit the socialness of the time. The only domain that will probably still go for the bio tech would be eastern Asia. Really because of their religion, and because eugenics wasnt abused much over there. I still feel as though biotechnology should not be act but then again we cannot stop the minds of scientists and they will always try to do the impossible because of their nature.Chapter 11Chapter eleven is all about how biotechnology is regulated today. There is the self-regulation by scientists or industry and the statutory which is basically the government. The government varies in strictness, big surprise there. With anything government, law or policy, it will always be more strict.Responsibilities are divided out so that they can be followed more closely or better I suppose. It also depends on where you are looking at regulations. Germany is the strictest, Britain the most relaxed and most other places are somewhere in between. As time goes on the laws and regulations have begun to tighten due to scandals and tragedies. Its unfortunate that it takes something bad to happen before safety and precautions are more of a concern.Chapter 12Chapter twelve, the last(a) CHAPTER, is about policies for the future. We do need to keep in mind that with time change comes. As of now new laws are being suppose on whether human expe rimentation applies to embryos. Francis does believe that the scientific community is too permissive, and that most scientists or bioethicists base things on the side of science. And I tend to agree here, to be a bioethicists your moral ground will be far greater than the average Joe.They must believe that they are conclusion ways to help the science community by figuring out ways to stop deficiencies in our DNA. With human cloning you dont know how the child will react when they reach maturity. I mean they would be an exact copy of another person without the connection. More than likely it will turn out bad and then we will just have a band of adolescents hating their parents, and the scientist who created them. Truth be told a clone really isnt a human being. It is more of a imitation of what a human is. Also if they try to mix human DNA with animals then the whole definition of human would change completely.